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Evolution study guide
Terms in this set (18)
-system of classification
-history of plants
-first biological definition for the term species
-wrote The Wisdom of God Manifested in the work of the creation
Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778)
-Father of modern taxonomy
-Binomial Nomenclature (taxonomy, Scientific Classification), a system by which species are given two names
-professor of Botany and was so influential that the Royal Navy began sending naturalists on their voyages--including Charles Darwin
-Father of Modern Geology
-Uniformitarianism-- hypothesized that the interior of the earth was very hot and the processes that changed the earth long ago are still happening today
-Natural Theology- gives evidence of the existence and attributes of the Deity
- Natural theology is to get the theological ideas from nature without using scriptures
-Charles Darwins professor at Cambridge
-hid proofs might have lead Darwin to reject life from divine origin
- says life cannot come from an unintellectual process as natural selection
-mentions natural selection but never expands/gives importance to it
-Acquired traits hypothesis
-doesn't believe in extinction
-proposed idea "transmutation"
-invertebrates-- studied/ coined the word
-geologist and mathematician who expanded the idea of uniformitarianism
-Playfair's law of accordant junctions"
-Element of Geometry, theort of Earth, adn Illustrations of the Huttonians Theory of the Earth
Thomas Robert Malthus
-Political economy and demography
-essay on Population
- Malthusian theory-- argues that population will always tend to outrun growth of production
-Ideas highly influenced Darwin
-Father of paleontology-- compared living animals with fossils and is known for establishing extinction
-strongly opposed theories of evolution before Darwins theory
-most famous work the Animal Kingdom
-Wildly influential geography book Principle of Geology
-used geological proof to prove the earth is over 6,000 years old.
-Uniformitarianism: assumption that the same natural laws and processes that operate in the universes now have always operated in the past and apply everywhere
-close friend of Darwin and contributed significantly on the thinking of the process of evolution
"Survival of the fittest"; Social Darwinism between societies and cultures
-Father of Modern Genetics
-experiment showed that pea plants inherited certain traits (dominant and recessive)
-proposed 3 laws of Heredity
1. Law of Segregation: each trait is defined by a pair of genes (one from each parent)
2. Law of Independent Assortment: inheritance of one trait is not dependent on inheritance of the other
3. law of Dominance: dominant>recessive
-Father of Microbiology
-pasteurization: heating milk and wine to kill harmful bacteria
-discovered weakened forms of microbes could be used as immunization against more virulent forms of microbes
-First discovered through rabies infected patients
-disproved spontaneous generation: flies swarming meat
what is evolution?
the process by which species gradually change over time creating new species
what is Darwins influence? what mechanism did he purpose?
Darwin purposed natural selection by studying the animals on South American and Pacific Islands.
Why is Mendel's work important to the study of evolution?
shows how the genes were picked and how species change over time by the certain dominant traits getting selected.
English naturalist. He studied the plants and animals of South America and the Pacific islands, and in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) set forth his theory of evolution. animals and humans share a common ancestry.
-makes body cells
-part of eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides
-makes gametes like sperm and egg
-type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores.
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