Genetics - Honors
Terms in this set (78)
Exchange of segments of genes between homologous chromosomes during Prophase I of meiosis.
Cell division that produces sex cells (gametes) for reproduction
a chromosome that determines whether an individual is male or female; in mammals , X or Y chromosmes.
An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
a trait that is determined by a gene found on one of the sex chromosomes, such as the X chromosome or the Y chromosome in humans
law of segregation
Mendel's law that states that the pairs of homologous chromosomes separate in meiosis so that only one chromosome from each pair is present in each gamete
what an organism looks like as a consequence of its genotype
An organism's genetic makeup or allele combinations
Having 2 identical alleles for a trait (TT or tt)
Having 2 different alleles for a trait (Tt)
law of independent assortment
Each pair of alleles segregates independently of each other pair of alleles during gamete formation
an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes (2n) or twice the haploid number
A cell that has half of the number of chromosomes (n) than the somatic cells
Chromosome pairs of the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern that possess genes for the same characters at corresponding loci. One homologous chromosome is inherited from the organism's father, the other from the mother.
Haploid male sex cells produced by meiosis.
Haploid female sex cell produced by meiosis
A reproductive process that involves two parents that combine their genetic material to produce a new organism, which differs from both parents
New combination of genetic information in a gamete as a result of crossing over during prophase I of meiosis.
An error in meiosis or mitosis, in which both members of a pair of homologous chromosomes or both sister chromatids fail to move apart properly.
An ordered sequence of events (including interphase and the mitotic phase) that extends from the time a eukaryotic cell is first formed from a dividing parent cell until its own division into two cells.
Cell grows, performs its normal functions, and prepares for division; consists of G1, S, and G2 phases
Cell's division (PMAT) of the nucleus. Final product is 2 cells that are exactly like the parent cell.
(1st stage of Mitosis) Chromosomes become visible, centrosomes separate and migrate toward opposite poles, mitotic spindles and asters form.
(2nd stage of Mitosis) Chromosomes line across the middle of the cell and a spindle fiber attaches to the centromere of each chromosomes
(3rd stage of Mitosis) The chromatids of each chromosome separate at the centromere and are pulled to opposite poles
(4th stage of Mitosis) Chromosomes arrive at the poles of the cell and begin to relax. Two nuclear membranes begin to form and the spindle fibers disappear. In animals, a cleavage furrow is formed, in plants a cell plate is formed.
Cytoplasmic division resulting in the formation of two separate cells.
Any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division
the production, growth, and maturation of an egg, or ovum. in females, meiosis forms three small polar bodies and one large egg (oocyte)
Nonfuctioning daughter cell formed during oogenesis; It has little cytoplasm, It will eventually disintegrate
Special cells used for reproduction. Produces gametes through meiosis.
Formation of sperm, after meiosis, 4 viable sperm cells are formed
A chromosomal disorder caused by the presence of all or part of an extra 21st chromosome. (Trisome 21)
a chromosomal disorder in which the male individual has an extra "X" chromosome (XXY)
A genetic defect in which affected women have only one X chromosome, causing developmental abnormalities and infertility.
A form of human dwarfism caused by a single dominant allele; the homozygous condition is lethal.
A genetic disorder that occurs in people with two copies of a certain recessive allele; characterized by an excessive secretion of mucus and consequent vulnerability to infection; fatal if untreated.
A genetic autosomal recessive disorder that causes progressive mental and motor deterioration; ALWAYS FATAL, usually before age 5. (Loci = chromosome 15)
Passing of traits from parent to offspring
Process by which DNA is copied in a cell before a cell divides by mitosis, meiosis, or binary fission
A type of RNA, synthesized from DNA, that attaches to ribosomes in the cytoplasm and specifies the primary structure of a protein; also called messenger RNA.
A display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape.
A selective breeding method in which two individuals with identical or similar sets of alleles are crossed
A person who has one recessive allele for a trait, but does not have the trait.
Double spiral that describes the shape of the DNA molecule.
A group of genetically identical organisms or cells artificially derived from a single parent.
Scientific study of heredity
the crossing of an individual of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive individual to determine the unknown genotype
Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine, and Uracil
A characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes.
transfer RNA; type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome
In humans, the term for the developing organism between the embryonic stage and birth.
A technology that includes the process of manipulating or altering the genetic material of a cell resulting in desirable functions or outcomes that would not occur naturally; Involves changing a gene or moving some of the organism's genes into another organism
A sequence of three nucleotide bases on mRNA that refers to a specific type of amino acid
the process by which DNA acts as a template for the synthesis of mRNA
A chart or "family tree" that tracks which members of a family have a particular trait
A haploid cell such as an egg or sperm. Gametes unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote.
Change in structure or number of chromosomes
Any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
Decoding of a mRNA message into a protein
genetically engineered DNA made by recombining fragments of DNA from different organisms, usually in a plasmid
A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and can cause a mutation
-occurs when two alleles equally expressed, but they affect the phenotype in separate, distinguishable way
Enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides
Process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell
An organism that has two different alleles for a trait
A type of inheritance in which two contrasting alleles contribute to the individual a trait not exactly like either parent; blending inheritance.
The insertion of working copies of a gene into the cells of a person with a genetic disorder in an attempt to correct the disorder
A change in the order of the bases in an organism's DNA; deletion, insertion, or substitution.
A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.
An alternative form of a gene.
A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruses.
three or more forms of a gene that code for a single trait (example - blood type = A, B, & O)
mutation that affects a single nucleotide, usually by substituting one nucleotide for another
A project coordinated by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Department of Energy (DOE) to determine the entire nucleotide sequence of the human chromosomes
Combined effect of two or more genes on a single character (example = skin color)
Describes a trait that covers over, or dominates, another form of that trait.
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