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a rod-shaped structure that forms when a single DNA molecule and its associated proteins coil tightly before cell division
the two copies of each chromosome, which are similar in size and shape and have similar gene information
when each chromosome and its homologue fail to properly separate; one cell will receive both chromosomes while another cell receives no chromosomes
when a physician uses a needle and syringe to remove a small amount of fluid from the amnion, the sac that surrounds the fetus
Chorionic villi sampling
a physician analyzes a karyotype made using cells grown from a sample of the chorionic villi, fingerlike extensions of placenta that grow into the mother's uterus
the chromosome fragment attaches to its homologous chromosome, which will carry two copies of a certain set of genes
when a fragment of a chromosome breaks off and reattaches to the original chromosome in reverse orientation
a period of time where the cell does a great deal of growing while carrying out normal cell processes
made of microtubules (long narrow tubes of protein) that help move the chromosomes apart in cell division
a disk of protein that serves as a platform for assembling the microtubules that extends out from the centromere
the process in the beginning of meiosis 1 where homologous chromosomes pair up next to each other
there is only one replication of DNA but two divisions, halving the number of chromosomes in each new cell
when each new cell after meiosis 1 contains half the number of chromosomes of the original cell
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