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Endocrine Glands & Hormones

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Pituitary Gland
lies in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone Produced Hormones: 1.Human growth hormone (HGH)
2.Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
3.Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
4.Leteinizing hormone (LH)
5.Prolactin
6.Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)
7.Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
Synthesize Hormones:
8.Ocytocin & 9. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
FSH (Follicle-stimulating hormone)
initiates development of egg and secretion of estrogens by ovaries/stimulates testes to produce sperm - (Produced in Pituitary Gland)
HGH (Human growth hormone)
Growth and repair of cells- (Produced in Pituitary Gland)
TSH (Thyroid-stimulating hormone)
Stimulates thyroid to secrete its hormones- (Produced in Pituitary Gland)
LH (Leteinizing hormone)
F - Stimulates ovaries to secrete estrogens and progesterone, ovulation
M - Stimulate testes to secrete testosterone- (Produced in Pituitary Gland)
Prolactin
Promotes milk secretion by mammary glands- (Produced in Pituitary Gland)
ACTH (Adrenocorticotrophic hormone)
Stimulates glucocorticoid secretion by adrenal cortex- (Produced in Pituitary Gland)
Melanocyte
Not sure
May influence brain activity in excess
Can cause darkening of skin - (Produced in Pituitary Gland)
Ocytocin
Causes contraction of uterus during childbirth
Causes contraction of cell in mammary glands to secrete milk - (Sythensized in Pituitary Gland)
ADH (Antidiuretic hormone)
Conserves water by decreasing urine and sweating and by increasing blood pressure by constricting arteries (Produced in Hypothalmus & Pituitary glands)
Thyroid Gland
just inferior to larynx & Produces hormones: T3 (triiodothyronine)

T4 (thyroxine)

Calcitonin
T3 (triiodothyronine) T4 (thyroxine)
Increases metabolism - (Produced in Thyroid Gland)
Calcitonin
Lowers blood calcium (Produced in Thyroid Gland)
Parathyroid Gland
These 4 glands are located on the posterior surface of the thyroid & Produces hormone: Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
PTH (Parathyroid hormone )
Increases blood calcium levels
Adrenal Glands
Paired pyramid shaped glands located on the superior to kidney bilatteraly - The outer layer, cortex, produces 3 types of hormones
Mineralocorticoids, Glucocorticoids, Androgens

The inner layer, medulla, produces 2 hormones
Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
Mineralocorticoids
Increases blood sodium and water
Decreases blood potassium
(Produced in Adrenal Glands)
Glucocorticoids
Increases protein breakdown
Resistance to stress
Anti-inflammatory
Depresses immune response
(Produced in Adrenal Glands)
Androgens
Increase growth of axillary and pubic hair
F - contribute to libido and source of estrogens after menopause (Produced in Adrenal Glands)
Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
Both enhance the effects of sympathetic nervous system "fight or flight" (Produced in Adrenal Glands)
Pineal Gland
Root of the 3rd ventricle of the brain - Produces Hormone: Meltonin
Meltonin
Biological clock (sleeping levels 10x greater) - (Produced in the Pineal Gland)
Hypothalamus
Superior to the pituitary - Produces Hormone: Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Pancreas
Located posterior and slightly inferior to stomach - Produces Hormone: Insulin & Glucagon
Insulin
Decreases blood glucose
Accelerating transport of glucose into cells
Stimulates turning glucose into storage forms - Glycogen, lipids, proteins - (Produced in the Pancreas)
Glycogen
Increase Blood Glucose - (Produced in the Pancreas)
Ovaries
Located in the pelvic cavity - Produces Hormones: Estrogens and progesterone, Relaxin & Inhibin
Estrogens and Progesterone
Regulate female hormonal cycle
Regulate oogensis
Maintain pregnancy
Prepare mammary glands for lactation
Develop and maintain secondary sex characteristics
(Produced in the ovaries)
Inhibin
Inhibits release of FSH from anterior pituitary -(Produced in the ovaries & Testes)
Testes
Located in scrotum - Produces Hormone: Testosterone & Inhibin
Testosterone
Stimulates decent of testes before birth
Regulates the production of sperm
Develop and maintain secondary sex characteristics
(Produced in Testes)