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tonic receptor

detects presence of stimulus

phasic receptor

detects change in stimulus

Merkel receptors

sense steady pressure (tonic)

Meissner's corpuscle

responds to flutter and stroking movements (phasic)

Sensory nerves

carry signals to spinal cord

Ruffini corpuscle

responds to skin stretch (tonic)

Pacinian corpuscle

senses vibration (phasic)

Olfactory pathway

olfactory nerves, bulb, tract, cortex

5 flavors

salty, sweet, acid, bitter, umami

Magnocellular ganglion cells

movement, location, depth

Parvacellular ganglion cells

color, form, texture

superior colliculus

eye movement, balance, head/body movement control

inferior colliculus

hearing and sight

Where are Autonomic reflexes centered?


How many neurons in the autonomic pathway

2 neurons that synapse at an autonomic ganglion

Describe sympathetic neuropathway with neurotransmitters and receptors

short preganglion nerve, ACh with nicotinic receptors, long postganglion nerve, Norepinephrine with adrenergic receptors

Describe parasympathetic neuropathway with neurotransmitters and receptors

long preganglion nerve, ACh with nicotinic receptors, short postganglion nerve, ACh with muscarinic receptors

Name the exception to sympathetic pathway with receptor and neurotransmitter

Sweat glands used cholinergic receptors with ACh

Name the 4 classes of adrenergic receptors, what neurotransmitter it responds to, and location

Alpha 1 - NE>E, sympathetic
Alpha 2 - NE>E, Pancreas
Beta 1 - NE=E, heart, kidney
Beta 2 - E>NE, smooth musc.

Where does the vagus nerve originate and what pathway does it involve

Medulla, parasympathetic

Axon varicosities open what channel and use what neurotransmitter in response to an action potential

Calcium channel, NE

What is the function of AChE?

Breaks down ACh

NAChR is permeable to what ions?

Na and K

What is the role of Troponin and Tropomyosin?

Troponin is bound by Ca and moves Tropomyosin which exposes the myosin-binding site on the actin

What is the role of Titin and Nebulin

Titin provides stability and elasticity to myosin
Nebulin helps align actin

what is the composition of myosinn?

2 coiled heavy chain tails with 2 heads

What part of the sarcomere gets shorter during contraction?

the I band

Describe the power stroke steps to muscle contraction.

Tight binding in the rigor state, ATP binds to myosin which causes myosin to release actin, ATP hydrolized (ADP + Pi) myosin head binds in cocked position, Release of Pi initiates the power stroke, ADP falls off and myosin resumes the rigor state.

Function of DHP receptors

responds to the action potential in the T-tubules, opens ryanodine receptors which let Ca out of the Sarcoplasmic reticulum

Red fibers

Slow twitch oxidative, long periods of contraction, small cell diameter

Intermediate muscle fibers

fast twitch oxidative, less fatigueable, both oxidative and glycolytic processes

White fibers

fast twitch glycolytic, quick fatigue, anaerobic, large cell diameter (recruited last due to fatigue)

Motor unit

Group of muscle fibers controlled by a single somatic motor neuron. (small motor units for fine movements and large units for gross movements) (all fibers are of the same type)

What component is found in skeletal but not smooth muscles?


Single unit smooth muscles

numerous gap junctions, unified contraction (found in blood vessels, intestinal tract)

Multi unit smooth muscle

No gap junctions, fine, graded contractions (found in iris, male reproductive tract)

Molecular events of smooth muscle contraction.

Ca channels open causing Ca release from SR, Ca binds to CaM, Ca-CaM activates MLCK, MLCK phosphorylates myosin heads (ATP), phosphorylated myosin heads increase muscle tension (no ATP needed to hold contraction)

Autonomic reflexes are monosynaptic or polysynaptic. Where are the synapses

Polysynaptic. at least one in CNS and another in an autonomic ganglion.

Muscle spindle function

sends information about muscle stretch to the CNS

Golgi tendon organ function

detects strain in the tendon (sensory nerve endings interwoven among collagen fibers)

What 2 regions control voluntary movements

Cerebral Cortex, Basal Nuclei

What 2 regions control postural reflexes and hand and eye movements

Brain stem, Cerebellum

what relays information from spinal cord, basal nucleus, and cerebellum to the Cortex


What integrates porprioception?


What maintains posture subconciously


Lateral corticospinal tracts cross in the ____ while Anterior CST cross in the ______

medulla, segment

Extrapyramidal system controls _____

Postural reflexes (tonic state of contraction)

Poiseuille's law. Flow

Resistance = Length of tube * viscosity / radius^4
Flow = 1/resistance

Name right and left heart valves

Right AV (tricuspid), Left AV or Mitral (bicuspid), Pulmonary semilunar valve, aortic semilunar valve.

What allows waves of depolarization to pass through the cardiac muscles?

Desomosome and Gap junctions in the Intercalated disks transfer the electrical signal from cell to cell

Starling's Law of the Heart

As you stretch the heart, increasing length, you increase tension

Cardiac action potential steps

Na channels open and then close (-90 - 20mV), K close and Ca open (plateau 10mV), K open Ca close (repolarize -90)

Skeletal vs. Cardiac contraction length and refractory period

cardiac contraction is much longer (10X), cardiac refractory period lasts as long as the contraction (opposite of skeletal)

How do sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation of the heart affect the action potential

sympathetic hypopolarizes the cell (due to high Ca levels) while parasympathetic hyperpolarizes the cell (due to extra K let out of the cell, muscarinic receptor activated K channels)

Electrical activation of the heart: the pathway

SA node depolarization, Atria, AV node, Ventricle

PR interval

atrial contraction

QRS complex

Electrical stimulation that leads to ventricular contraction

QT interval

ventricular contraction

T wave

ventricular repolarization

cardiac output equation

CO = heart rate * stroke volume

Baroreceptor function and location

stretch-sensitive mechanoreceptors used to monitor blood pressure.
Located in the walls of the carotid arteries and aorta.

Baroreceptor reflex

sensory neurons to the CVCC, decrease sympathetic (dilation of arteries/veins), increase parasympathetic (decrease heart rate)

1st and 2nd most abundant WBCs

Neutrophils, Lymphocytes

what defines RBC shape?


What uses Fe to make Hb?

bone marrow

What organ converts Hb to bilirubin? where does bilirubin go?

Spleen, bilirubin is metabolized in the liver and excreted through bile

steps of platelet aggregation

collagen binds and activates platelets, release of platelet factors, attracts more platelets, forms platelet plug

What inhibits platelet adhesion in the blood?

Prostacyclin and NO (also causes vasodilation)

Which pathway is longer, intrinsic or extrinsic?


common pathway steps

prothrombin converted to thrombin which converts fibrinogen to fibrin. (those fibers become part of the clot)

role of thrombin in clot resorption

thrombin creates plasmin from plasminogen. plasmin breaks down the fibrin.

muscles of inhalation

external intercostals, diaphragm, scalenes, sternocleido-mastoids

muscles of exhalation

internal intercostals, abdominnals

name 4 lung volumes

residual volume, expiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume

Name the 4 lung capacities

Total lung capacity, inspiratory capacity (IRV + Vt), vital capacity (Vt + IRV + ERV), Functional residual capacity (ERV + RV)

Law of Leplace (equation)

Pressure = 2 * Tension / radius

Function of alveolar type I and type II cells

type I is thin for gas transport, type II produces surfactant

What causes arteriolar vasoconstriction around an alveolus?

low O2 levels

Factors that decrease Hb O2 binding affinity

increased Temp, Pco2, 2,3 DPG, and decreased pH

How is a majority of the CO2 transported in the blood?

as bicarbonate ions (HCO3-)

What is the function of Carbonic anhydrase (CA)?

converts co2 and h2o into carbonic acid (h2co3)

How is excess bicarbonate removed from the RBC?

by the Cl/HCO3- antiport

What nerve activates the diaphragm?

the phrenic nerve

dorsal respiratory group (DRG) function

muscles of inspiration

Role of central H+ chemoreceptor

senses increased CO2 levels and stimulates increased ventilation

Peripheral chemoreceptors are responsive to what molecules?

CO2, O2

protective ventilation reflexes

bronchostriction in response to noxious particles
coughing - stimulation of carina
sneezing - nasal cavity irritation

function of albumins

maintain oncotic pressure

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