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30 terms

ch.14 mgmt dynamics of behavior in organizations

STUDY
PLAY
organizational behavior
an interdisciplinary field dedicated to the study of how individuals and groups tend to act in organizations.
organizational citizenship
work behavior that goes beyond job requirements and contribues as needed to the organization's success.
attitude
a cognitive and affective evaluation that predisposes a person to act in a certain way.
What are the two attitudes that relate to high performnce
job satisfcation and commitment to the organization.
job satisfaction
a positive attitude towards one's job. when matches a persons needs and interests, working conditions and rewards.
organizational commitment
loyalty to and heavy involvement in one's organization. can be promoted by keeping employees infromed, giving them a say in decisions, providing the necessary training and other resources that enable them to succeed, treating them fairly, and offering rewards they value.
cognitive dissonance
a condition in which two attitudes or a behavior and an attitude conflict.
perception
the cognitive process people use to make sense out of the environment by selecting, organizing, and interpreting info. step by step process.
preceptual selectivity
is the process by which individuals screen and select the various objects and stimuli that vie for their attention. certain stimuli catch their attention, and other do not. is a complex filtering process. people typically focus on stimuli that satisfy their needs and that are consistent with their attitudes, values and personality.
perceptual distortions
errors in perceptual judgment that arise from inaccuracies in any part of the perceptual process.
stereotyping
the tendency to assign and individual to a group or broad category and then attribute generalizations about the group to the individual.
halo effect
occurs when the perceiver develops an overall impression of a person or situation based on one characterisitc, either favorable or unfavorable
projection
is the tendency of perceivers to see their own personal traits in other people; that is , they project their own needs, feelings, values, and attitudes into their judgement of others.
perceptual defense
is the tendency of perceivers to protect themselves against ideas, objects, people that are threatening. tend to disregard disturbing or unpleasant things and perceive pleasant satifying things.
attributions
are judgments about what caused a person's behavior something about the person or something about the situation.
fundamental attribution error
the tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors on another's behavior and to overestimate the influence of internal factors
self-serving bias
the tendency to overestimate the contribution of internal factors to one's successes and the contribution of external factors to one's failures
personality
the set of characteristics that underlie a relatively stable pattern of behavior in response to ideas, object, or people in the environment.
Big Five Personality factors
Dimensions that describe and individuals extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience.
Extroversion
the degree to which a person is outgoing. sociable, assertive, and comfortable with interpersonal relationships.
agreeableness
the degree to which a person is able to get along with others by being good-natured, likable, cooperative, forgiving, understanding, and trusting.
conscientiousness
the degree to which a person is focused on a few goals, thus behaving in ways that are responsible, dependable, persistent, and achievement oriented.
emotional stability
the degree to which a person is calm, enthusiastic, and self confident, rather than tense, depressed, moody, or insecure.
openness to experience
the degreee to which a person has a broad range of interests and is imaginative, creative, artistically sensitive, and willing to consider new ideas.
authoritarianism
is the belief that power and status differences should exist within the organization.
machiavellianism
which is characterized by the acquisition of power and the manipulation of other people for purely personal gain.
stress
a physiological and emotional response to stimuli that place physical or psychological demands on an individual.
role ambiguity
which means that people are unclear about what task behaviors are expected of them.
role conflict
incompatible demands of different roles.
locus of control
the tendency to place the primary responsibility for ones success or failure either within oneself internally or outside forces externally.