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29 terms

Genetic Engineering and Human Genome ch. 13 & 14

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genetic engineering
process of making changes in the DNA code of living organisms
selective breeding
method of improving a species by allowing only those individual organisms with desired characteristics to produce the next generation. choosing a gene by choosing a trait
hybridization
breeding technique that involves crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best traits of both organisms
inbreeding
continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics. preserved trait
restriction enzymes
enzymes that cut DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides. also, a bacterial defense against viruses.
recognition sequence
a nucleotide sequence thats typically composed of 4, 6, or 8 nucleotides
plasmid
circular DNA molecule found in bacteria
cutting site
inbetween the G and the A in GAATTC
sticky ends
they are the ends of EcoR1 after its been cut. they stick to complementary bases
fragments
the piece of DNA that you get once you cut the DNA strand by a restriction enzyme. it can tell you whether or not you are related to someone
transgenic
term used to refer to an organism that contains genes from other organisms
transformation
process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene from another strain of bacteria
recombinant DNA
DNA produced by combining RNA from different sources
gene splicing
the technology of preparing recombinant DNA in vitro by cutting up DNA and splicing together fragments from more than one organism
gel electrophoresis
procedure used to separate and analyze DNA fragments by placing a mixture of DNA fragments at one end of a porous gel and applying an electrical voltage to the gel
agarose
the gel that is used as a support for electrophoresis
DNA finger printing
analysis of sections of DNA that have little or no known function, but vary widely from one individual to another, in order to identify individuals
banding pattern
23 pairs of chromosomes, 22 pairs of autosomal chromosomes, and 1 pair of sex chromosomes. the chromosome pairs are in order from biggest to smallest. `
gene therapy
treatment of a disease caused by malfunction of a gene, by stably transfering the cells of the organism with the normal gene
cloning
copy of all its DNA. when an organism is genetically identical with another organism produced from a single cell.
karyotype
set of photographs of chromosomes grouped in order in pairs
sex chromosomes
one of two chromosomes that determine an individual's sex; females have two X chromosomes; males have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome
autosome
chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
pedigree
chart that shows the relationships within a family
polygenic
trait controlled by two or more genes
sex-linked genes
gene located on the X or the Y chromosome
nondisjunction
error in meiosis in which homologus chromosomes fail to separate
cystic fibrosis
a disorder caused by recessive alleles that causes excess mucus in lungs, digestive tract, liver; increased susceptibility to infections; death in childhood unless treated
sickle cell disease
a disorder caused by codominant alleles that caused sickled red blood cells and damage to many tissues