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Early Civilixation history at IU EAST Spring Semester 2020
Terms in this set (105)
The fossil sites around Johannesburg, South Africa are known as the Crib of Humankind.
Which of the following can were found as tools in the Makapansgat region? (check all that apply)
The fact that many of the bones from Makapansgat were black led researchers to the conclusion that
this represents an early use of fire
DNA evidence indicates that all modern humans alive today came from a population in Africa that arose how long ago?
around 177,000 years
It is likely that _______________ were collected for food, beauty, and even perhaps trade and exchange of goods.
Evidence points to the idea that all humans may have come from a population of 600 individuals in one area of Africa.
A major significance of the sites around Manapansgat and Pinnacle Point is that they help us to understand
how more apelike species evolved into more human like species
The early humans around Makapansgat and Pinnacle Point lived in what sort of dwellings?
The first fossil discovered in the region, nicknamed the Taung Child created controversy over whether it belonged to human or ______________ species.
________________ was the name given to the remains of the what is referred to as the first fossilized human.
Hadar demonstrates that East African humans began to walk upright at how far back in history?
over 3 million years ago
Although it is clear that the early humans at Hadar walked upright there have been no findings that they used tools.
The 3 million + old remains remains of the human found at Hadar were first named after a Beatles song, Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds.
Although the remains from Hadar are commonly referred to by an English name, the official name is Ethiopian, Dinkinesh, which means _______
you are marvelous
Ethopia was a surprising place to discover such ancient human remains.
_______________ is the term used to refer to bipedal, upright species of people.
*could be wrong
The remains of over 360 individuals discovered at Hadar are generally referred to as the __________________ of humanity.
*could be wrong
Early human groups only made migrations via land as travel by sea was impossible.
Hadar is considered by paleoanthropologiests to be the first center of human origins and human identity.
Babylon is located in the Ancient Near East region of
The oldest recorded story about a hero searching for the meaning of human life is ___________________
Epic of Gilgamesh
The book stipulates Gilgamesh is at times compared with Greek heroes like
The concept of a flood that destroyed creation originated where?
Babylon was considered the cultural and religious center of the Near East.
Babylonia was an example of what type of ancient culture?
Which was not true of Mesopotamian religious beliefs?
They did not believe in omens for the supernatural
Which of the monotheistic religions came to importance in Babylon around 580 BCE?
The code of Hammurabi treats all subjects equally under the law.
Who was the founder of the Athenian trial court system?
The Athenian obsession with defensive wall building was a result of the fierce competitiveness of the independent Greek city-states as well as the view that submitting to outsider rule was akin to slaver
Due to one of the founding myths of the city of Athens it was illegal under Athenian law to ______________________________________
cut down an olive tree
Under Athenian law the murder of an adulterer caught in the act was a crime punishable by death.
What made the Acropolis of Athens an attractive area for settlement?
the easily defensible landscape of the location
Athens was the undisputed exporter in the Mediterranean of which of the following?
Although Athens is considered to have been the best example of direct democracy in history, its democracy was unstable and extremely short lived.
Which of the following groups was NOT considered among the classes of noncitizens in Athenian democracy?
poor land owners
__________________ was the polis that was the archenemy of Athens throughout the Classical period.
One of the most prominent trails in Athenian democracy was that of the philosopher ___________________________
The Eastern Phoenicians pushed west by the rising demand in southwest Asia for
The Carthaginians fought multiple wars against Rome known as the ____________ Wars.
Aristotle stated that the Carthaginian political system most resembled that of Athens.
Warfare between Carthage and Greece inadvertently led to the rise of which region/empire?
The term Berber is derived from a Latin word which means racially and ethnically inferior.
Although located around the Mediterranean Sea Carthaginians were never sea fearing people.
Which of the following were not rivals of or warring states against Carthage?
The Roman Republic and Empire included territory in which of these areas (check all that apply)
Britain, Africa, Middle East, Mediterranean
Latinfundia refers to large-scale agricultural estates often controlled by Roman absentee land-owners.
Xian was the eastern terminus of the trade route known as the
Under the ideas of Daoism if you lived in accord with the rhythms of the Dao you would die early to join the gods.
What characteristics made Miss Ren, the fictional fox fairy, seem as if she was not of this world? (choose all that apply)
her pealing laughter, her melodious voice, her graceful movement, her peerless beauty
What does the author say was the greatest impact that the Silk Road had on China?
Xian was the capital city of China during a number of early dynasties.
The governing institutions established by the first emperor would persist until what year?
Which of the following were foreign influences on China that came through Xian as the eastern gateway?
buddhism, preference for lamb over fish, islam
An influence of pastoral nomads on China was the adoption of cavalry in the military.
The Eastern and Western Markets were separated between nobles and commoners with the Eastern Market of the nobles offering a much wider variety of domestic and foreign good than the Western Market.
The importance of the Xian region lay in it's geographical location being surrounded by
mountain ranger on all sides.
The prophet Muhammad preached strict adherence to
This was one of the most disputed places in the region before the birth of Muhammad
Muhammad believed that Christians, Jews, and Muslims were linked as monotheists and "People of the Book".
___________________ is a city of pilgrimage for the followers of Muhammad and Islam.
The threat of this empire to the Ottomans in the Indian Ocean began the unraveling of the Islamic world.
Ibn Battuta, an Islamic expolorer, is often called the Islamic Christoper Columbus.
Islamic societies took root from East Africa to China from the eleventh to the sixteenth centuries.
Mecca is located in present-day
The hajj is the name of
the muslim pilgrimage to mecca
One of the concerns of Islamic in the period of European colonialism was the inability of Indians living under control being able to make the pilgrimage to Mecca.
Kilwa was an important Christian city-state in East Africa.
The connection of the region to the commercial and cultural world of the ____________________________ liked triggered the growth of Kilwa in the 9th century.
The houses of merchants in the Kilwa trade region might have all of the following EXCEPT
The growth of the elite culture in the second phase of Kilwa's transformation was tied to the city-state's role in the trade of
The building of grand houses and places in Kilwa was typical of Swahili towns of the period.
In 1502 the sultan of Kilwa was forced to become a tributary of the king of ____________________________
It was Kilwa's access to and dependence upon Indian Ocean trade that made it vulnerable to the Portugues and Omanis.
The religion of the Kilwa city-state was
The trade and acquisition of ________________ from China has been found to be important in the initial transformation of Kilwa from just a small coastal settlement to an area of wealth and importance.
The word Swahili, which refers to the language and culture of Kilwa and other parts of East Africa, means ______________________________
people of the coast
Which of the following is NOT discussed as an important pursuit in the Hindu religious-spiritual and worldly-material realms?
The major gods of Hinduism that emerged in the late Vedic period were
Shiva, Devi, and Vishnu
A major connection between Varansi and the other regions in the chapters for this unit is that they all followed monotheistic religions.
Varansi was well known throughout East and West Asia as well as Europe for this manufacture of
There were ________ important Sultanate Dynasties before the Mughal emperors defeated the sultanates.
Artha is the Hindu concept of obligation and duty.
Gurus and students lived and studied the texts of Hinduism in
Hinduism was the only religion practiced in Varanasi.
Although sea trade was important in the Venetian empire, it was no where near as significant as trade over land.
Noble wealth in Venice depended upon which of the following enterprises?
Which of these factors led to the decline of Venice's commercial dominance? (check all that apply)
Spanish colonization of the new world, fall of Constantinople to the Turks, and the rise of rival markets in Europe and beyond.
Immigration to Venice was an important part of of sustaining the city's population particularly for the collection of taxes.
Which of the following were significant trade items produced in Venice -- not just acquired by foreign trade? (check all that apply)
books, ships, spectacles
Venetians during the Renaissance developed a new intellectual movement known as _________________________
The author of this chapter says that the _____________________________ gives Venice a unique sound.
lack of streets
Venice was known as a transmitter of goods and culture between the East and the West.
What product's lack of quality is Canon Pietro Casola disgusted with in the markets in Venice?
The ___________________________________ in Venice was an island surrounded by water that separated one particular religious group from the majority Christians in the city.
Which country held the monopoly over the trade of slaves in the early 1500s?
________________________ was the trade item that attracted European attention to Potosi.
Which of the following were problems or dangers encountered by those who worked in the mines? (check all that apply)
worker injuries, lung afflictions, long work hours 6 days a week
Cocoa was used strictly as a dangerous hallucinogenic drug in the 16th century.
The labor draft of indigenous males to work in the silver mines was called the _______________________
Corn beer was a commodity produced by the Indigenous people but only consumed by European settlers.
The domesticated animal used for the transport of goods and people in the Incan empire and then to bring goods to the mines was
Potosi was difficult to get to because
it was located on a steep mountain
Spanish masters who controlled the work of indigenous people were known as
______________________ and ____________________ were the two European nations that controlled the New World in the 16th century.
spain and portugal
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