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Arts and Humanities
Religion 110: Intro to Islam Traditions Exam 1
Terms in this set (43)
570 CE in Mecca
When and where was Muhammad born? (Into clan of the Quraysh)
-Year when Muhammed received his first revelation from the angel Gabriel
- In Hija (a cave) near Mecca
Muhammad preaches in Mecca
622 CE in Islam
"The Hijra" occurs: Muhammad and his followers leave Mecca and flea to Medina up the first mosque in his home; they pray towards Jerusalem
-Battle of Badr
-Muslims successfully attack Meccan caravans at Badr.
Muslims are defeated by Meccans at Uhud.
-Muhammad returns to Mecca to capture it
-Muslims capture Mecca
- Ka'ba is cleansed, pilgrimage rites are Islamicized, tribes
of Arabia vow allegiance to Muhammad
Death of Muhammad
In what way are the Bedouin value of honoring the bloodline and the conflicts between Sunnites and Shi'ites related?
- believed and emphasized the bloodline is only alive with Ali (Muhammad's relative) as the only rightfully guided caliph
-ali becomes the caliph but not immediately after Muhammads death and Shi'tes are pissed about that
Sunnis: think all 4 were ideal leaders
What influence did the Bedouin(tribe)/ Meccan belief system have on Islam?
INFLUENCED ISLAM (SIMILAR):
1)Because the Bedouin(tribe)/ Meccan belief was Zoroastrianism, a monotheistic religion, transferred many beliefs
2)Bedouin beliefs featured Allah
3)Mecca was very tribal before , Muhammad continued the tribal model but joined them all together
INFLUENCED ISLAM (DIFFERENT):
1)Bedouin tribes believed Allah had 3 daughters-who could be called on to intercede with him 3 (This believe did not exist in Islam)
2)Meccans did not believe in Judgement Day/afterlife (THERE IS A JUDGEMENT DAY IN ISLAM)
What was the role of the Ka'aba before the time of Islam?
- The Kaaba was housing/holding all of the idols (300), and was a pilgrimmage site to the gods and goddesses. It had a black stone set in the wall at one corner that was believed to have come from heaven
Which other religions that were present in the Middle East at the time of the Prophet Muhammad, influenced Islam?
Zoroastrianism, Nestorianism, Christianity, Judaism, Gnosticism
Describe some of the obstacles the Prophet Muhammad encountered while in Mecca (610-622)
starting new religion and ppl don't really like it which is why he goes to Medina
1)Commercial prosperity in Mecca was causing social strains and weakening tribal solidarity as the gap between the wealthyand the poor was increasing and the wealthy were less inclined to help the poor, Muhammad suffered from this it is likely
2)The Hira;Muhammads first message sent by Allah through Gabriel caused him to be was Persecuted by is clan
3)In 619 both Muhammads wife and uncle Abu Talib (his only protector) died - he suddenly lost both moral and marital support- OK!
What is the Night of Power?
Islamic belief the night when the first verses of the Quran were revealed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad.t
- the blessings and mercy of God are abundant, sins are forgiven, supplications are accepted,
- the angels who also descend to earth, specially the Angel Gabriel, referred to as "the Spirit", to perform every and any errand decreed by God.
What role did the Roman/Byzantine Empire play in the spread of Islam?
ROMANS AND Byzantines were two empires in power, they were fueding so much, right when they both lost so much powr from fifhting, and islam was able to fill power vacuum. Islam is allowed to spread bc those two empires die out on their own (collapsed), Muslim armies came in colonized the arabs because they were already used to being colnized
Explain how and where the first revelation in the Qur'an took place
- Muhammad's revelation was an event described in Islam as taking place in 610 AD, during which the Islamic prophet, Muhammad was visited by the Angel Gabriel archangel Jibrīl, who revealed to him the beginnings of what would later become the Qur'ran. The event took place in a cave called Hira which was near Mecca
What is the Miraculous Night Journey? What is its significance for the growth of Islam?
- The Israa and Miraj refer to, two parts of a miraculous journey that Prophet Muhammad took in one night from Makka to Jerusalem and then an ascension to the heavens.
- Finally, he reached the highest point in the heavens and was graced with an experience of the Divine Presence. On that occasion the Prophet received a number of directives including that Prayers were obligatory five times a day.
SIGNIFICANCE:THE JOURNEY PROVIDED HIM WITH A RECOGNITION FROM THOSE WHO HAD DOUBTED HIS MESSAGE BEFORE & THE DAILY PRAYERS WERE SET AT 5
How is the Dome of the Rock connected to this journey? (Night Journey)
- The site's great significance for Muslims derives from traditions connecting it to the creation of the world and to the belief that the Prophet Muhammad's Night Journey to heaven started from the rock at the center of the structure.
Why was it important for the growth of the Empire that the Muslims enforced the use of Arabic as the language of the bureaucracy?
- The Qur'an is written in arabic and should only be recited in Arabic because that is the original verbatim message of Allah, and making the language of the government arabic meant that everyone had to learn arabic and over time, most of the empire spoke arabic
Explain the significance of the Battle of Badr for the development of Islam.
- was a key battle in the early days of Islam and a turning point in Muhammad's struggle with his opponents in Mecca
- decisive victory attributable to divine intervention, or by secular sources to the strategic genius of Muhammad. It is one of the few battles specifically mentioned in the Quran.
- Creates need for 3rd pillar almsgiving, they share wealth from raid
- Defeateed much larger meccan force
Compare the role the Prophet Muhammad played during the time in Mecca with his role in Medina.
● Mecca-persecuted, led an oppressed population
● Medina-Becomes powerful leader of new union tribes called an umma
● MECCA: MESSAGE IS MORE SPIRITUAL, MEDINa HE ALSO STARTS TO BUILD A COHERENT SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS MODEL FOR THE COMMUNITY
● IN mecca he did not have a lot of power
What was the significance of the first mosque?
- According to legend, its first stones were positioned by Muhammad as soon as he arrived on his emigration from the city of Mecca to Medina, and the mosque was completed by his companions. Muhammad spent 14 days in this mosque praying
- Huge symbolic sign that the community could now have its own house of worship
Identify three moments in the life of the Prophet Muhammad that influenced the development of Islam.
- 610 - Receives first revelation from God, Angel Gabriel
- 622 - Emigrates with his followers from Mecca to Medina. (moves holy city)
- 632 - Returned to Mecca to perform a pilgrimage. (creates Hajj)
How did the status of women change with the coming of Islam?
● Widows could marry
● Men could have 4 wives but needed to treat all of them equally - was unlimited before
● Could not bury girl children anymore
What were the main contributions of the first four rightly guided caliphs that helped strengthen Islam?
● Codified Quran,
● Strengthened army/expanded in size
● New laws and religious teachings
What was one of the main points of contention at the time of the death of the Prophet Muhammad that continues to influence Islam today?
- Who should succeed Muhammad, leads to Sunni vs Shi'ite debate
Who are the Kharijites and what was their role in Islamic history?
● Extremist group that resorts to violence
● Relevence Kills Ali, causes Muawiyah to start Umayyad dynasty
What military, religious and other strategies did the Muslims use that helped them colonize the areas beyond Arabia?
● Just kinda entered cities and peacefully overtook them
● Allowed local governments to continue
Who were the Dhimmis and what was their status?
- non-Muslims living in an Islamic state
- rights fully protected in their communities, but as citizens in the Islamic state, had certain restrictions, and it was obligatory for them to pay a tax
Who were the clients and how were they related to the early Muslims?
- Members of territories that empire had control over that converted to Islam, and they are called clients because they needed a sponsor that was already an original muslim, making them a "client"
How did the Ummayad Dynasty start?
● Battle of Siffin when Muawiyah challenged ALI as caliph
● Quranic Verses on swords allowed peaceful negotiations for ali's men would not fight agains Gods word
● Ali's death
○ Muawiyah takes over and begins Umayyad
What were the forces behind its downfall? (Ummayad Dynasty )
● Clients people that lived in territories that were tken over by Muslims- would need to find a muslim sponsor to convert
● Kharijites WHO ARE THE KHARIJITES Ad what is their relevance
● Pious muslims
● Shi'a muslims
● How did these people take down the empire? REVOLUTION; THEY HAD HAD IT
○ These ppl revolted against the rulers of the dynasty and took it down
● This brought in the Abbasid Empire:
What do we mean when we say that the Abbaside Empire allowed for a flourishing culture to emerge in the lands it covered?
● The size and expansion allowed widespread ideas and knowledge to come together
● Scholarship, poetry, art, economy all boosted
● First time islamic culture flourishedc
What was the significance of the Crusades?
● Christians trying to take back holy land, weaken Abbasid Empire; CREATED CHAOS & DISRUPTION. ON THE OTHER HAND THEY CARRIED PARTS OF THE ISLAMIC KNOWLEDGE AND CULTURE BACK TO EUROPE.
What is the significance of the concept of the ummah? How did Muslims create, consolidate, and maintain it?
● Community of faith
Why is the tradition of pre-Islamic poetry of relevance to Islam?
● Recognizes Ramadan as a month of peaceful and intellectual relevance
What was the main discussion concerning the so-called Satanic verses? How is it related to the concepts of inspiration and revelation? What is the difference?
● inspiration=Muhammad's teachings from within(seen as Hadith)
● revelation=God's teachings through Muhammad
What is the meaning of the concept of tawhid?
- God is one being, the oneness of God
Can you give an example of how the revelation of the Qur'an comments on/ interacts with the life of the Prophet and/or the Muslim community? (Think of the term: occasions of revelation). FOR EXAMPLE, THE INJUNCTION THAT THE MONTH OF RAMADAN IS BECOMES A HOLY MONTH FOR MUSLIMS
How do the Qur'an and the Bible overlap?
How do the Qur'an and the Bible overlap?
● Much of old testament overlap, see Yunus and the Fish
● According to Muslim history of Qur'an began when the angel Gabriel appeared to Muhammad in a cave Hija near Mecca, reciting to him the first verses of the Quran
● The angel Gabriel is, of course, an important character in the Hebrew Bible (where he appears to and explains visions to the prophet Daniel) and the New Testament (where he appears to Zecharia, telling him of his son-to-be, John the Baptist).
○ Beyond Gabriel, the Quran is filled with characters from the Hebrew Bible: Adam, Noah, Abraham, Lot, Isaac, Ishmael, Jacob, Joseph, Moses, David and Goliath, Jonah, Mary, and John the Baptist all appear, among who are sent by god to instruct
- Jesus is savior in bible See Jesus as Prophet, not divine
Explain the relevance of the Hadith (a report or piece of news and how it is being used today. What is the difference between the Hadith and the Sunna?
Hadith-actions and deeds of Prophet
Sunna-only words of prophet, text
-values, norms, and laws implicit or ecplicit in what the prophet said, did, or allowed to be donetell the actions and deeds of the Prophet
Explain the role of the Prophet Muhammad as a guide for Muslims in their daily lives.
● Special human, gemstone amongst other stones
● Leader and one to model life after
3 events in muhammads life while in medina
a. Went to Medina as mediator but over time became its effctive ruler
b. powerful leader and formeed a union of tribes called an umma "muslim community"
c. Viewed as first islamic state
d. MECCA: MESSAGE IS MORE SPIRITUAL, MEDINa HE ALSO STARTS TO BUILD A COHERENT SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS MODEL FOR THE COMMUNITY
4 major themes in qur'an and underlying message
Underlying message provides Muslims with detailed guidance on their everyday problems. Together with the sayings, actions, and recommendations of Muhammad, the Qur'an has been the ultimate source of legal authority for Muslims over the past fourteen centuries.
1)Faith: onee who submitss recognizes and acts on belssings of Allah
2) God is one
3)Propheecy (conveys commands and moral standards to humans)
e. 4)The Last Day
i. Firm belief that Almighty Allah will raise people to life from their graves; He will then judge them according to their deeds. Those who deserve to go to Paradise will be sent to it, while those who deserve to go to Hellfire will be sent to it.
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