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two or more people who identify and interact with one another

social group

temporary, loosely formed collection of people who may or may not interact


primary groups

all of the above

every society's most important primary group


secondary group

impersonal and engages in some specific activity

Not a characteristic of secondary groups

personal orientation

we see the ...... as a means to an end, and ..... as a end itself

secondary group; primary group

group leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks

instrumental leadership

group leadership that emphasizes collective well-bing

expressive leadership

type of leadership style that takes charge of making decisions and makes sure people do what they are told

authoritarian leadership

type of leader encourages everyone in a group to have a say in what happens

democratic leader

type of leader downplays their own power, letting the group function more or less on its own

laissez-faire leaders

"shock generator" showed

people are surprisingly likely to follow the orders of not only real authority figures but also groups of ordinary individuals

Not an expression of groupthink

the group seeks diverse members and ends up with being unable to reach consensus

social group that people use as a point of reference in making evaluations or decisions

reference group

type of social group that command's a member's esteem and loyalty


social group toward which a person feels competition or opposition



social group with three members

social group open to any and all people as new members

all of the above

typically true of a social network

networks are fuzzy groups made up of people we know of rather than those we know well

formal organizations

large secondary groups with goal orientation

maximum securtiy prison would be what organizations

coercive organization

formal organization people join to obtain money and other material benefits

utilitarian organization

not a trait of bureaucrazy

favoring family members over strangers

all factors outside an organization that affect the organizations operation

organizational environment

harmful effect of formal organizations

organizations create alienation

keeping a bleeding patient waiting while filling out lots of paperwork is

bureaucratic ritualism

tendency of bureaucratic organizations to keep themselves going

bureaucratic inertia

iron law of oligarchy

bureaucracy always means the few rule the many

idea behind scientific management

applying scientific principles can make a business more efficient

mcdonaldization of society

mcdonalds organization principles coming to dominate all of society

reason to study sexuality from the sociological perspective

all of the above

biological distinction between males and females


deeper voices in males

secondary sex characteristics

comparative research

although sex has a biological foundation sexual practices vary from place to place as culture

importance of alfred kinseys research on sexuality

showing that people were less conventional than most people thought

when was sexual counterrevolution


effect of sexual counterrevolution

to encourage people to limit their numbers of sexual partners or, to abstain from sex entirely

research on attitudes towards premarital sex tells us

the public is more accepting of premarital sex than it was a generation ago

....... of married men,........ of married women, remain faithful

75; 90

little or no attraction to people of either sex


sexual orientation is rooted in

human biology, although social experience plays some role

......of men.......of women in us claim that they have a homosexual identity

2.8' 1.4


fear of close personal interaction with people thought to be gay, lesbian, or bi

people to oppose pornography argue that

all of the above

prostitution is most common in

poor nations where women have fewer economic opportunities

a reason not to view prostitution as simply a matter of personal choice involving adults

all of the above

statement about rape not true

in most cases of rape the victim does not know the attacker

widespread, false idea about rape

women who are raped must have encouraged their attackers

society needs to regulate human sexuality

structural-functional approach

the more global our view of sexuality

the more variety we see in the meanings people attach to sexuality

norm stating that people remain virgins until marriage

has become weaker

symbolic-interaction approach to sexuality topic

how individuals in various settings engages in different sexual behavior and attach different meanings to sexual activity

not consistent with the social-conflict approach

the process of reality construction is highly variable so that one groups views of sexuality may well differ from another

criticism of the social-conflict approach's view of sexuality

all of the above

the recognized violation of cultural norms


crime differs from deviance in that crime

refers to a violation of norms enacted into law

biological approaches offer

a very limited understanding of crime

value of psychological theories of deviance is limited because

very few people experience an unsuccessful socialization

functions of deviance noted by emile durkheim

all of the above

process of seeking conventional goals but rejecting the conventional means to achieve them


low-paid, compulsively conforming bank teller who never seems to want to get ahead but never seems to do anything wrong


cloward and ohlin extended mertons theory of deviance stating that crime

reflects both limited legitimate opportunity as well as accessible illegitimate opportunity

the code of the streets

in jail or worse

labeling theory

deviance arises not so much from what people do as how others respond to what they do

powerful and negative label that greatly changes a person's self-concept and social identity


medicalization of deviance

all of the above

edwin sutherlands differential association theory links deviance to

the amount of contact a person has with others who encourage or discourage conventional behavior

control theory suggests which of the following categories of people would be most likely to engage in deviance

youngsters who hand out waiting for something to happen

what society labels as a deviant is based primarily on

differences in power between various categories of people

crime committed by persons of high social position in the course of their occupations

white-collar crime

illegal actions of a corporation or people acting on its behalf

corporate crime

organized crime

any business that supplies illegal goods or services

hate crime

criminal act motivated by race or other bias

gender figures into the study of deviance because

every society in the world applies stronger normative controls to females than to males

a crime is composed of which two components

the act and criminal intent

criminal statistics gathered by federal bureau of investigation reflect

offenses known to the police

the actual amount of crime in the us is about..... what official reports indicate

three times greater than

men who represent about half the us population account for about........ of all the arrests for property crime

67 percent

the us men account for about....... of all arrest for violent crime

about 82 percent

factors that explain the high crime rate in the us

our emphasis on individual economic success which weakens the social fabric

oldest justification for punishing an offender


if a parent threatens a child with punishment in order to discourage wrongdoing the parent is using punishment to accomplish what


criminal recidivism

later offenses by people previously convicted of crimes

advantages of community-based corrections

all of the above

social stratification

gives some people more privileges and opportunities than others

not true about stratification

a family's social standing typically changes a great deal from generation to generation

social stratification may involve differences in

all of the above

person who moves from one occupation to another that provides about the same level of rewards

horizontal social mobility

societies that have caste systems have economies that are


ending of apartheid in south africa has led to

society becoming a meritocracy

the historical replacement of caste systems with class systems

replaces one find of inequality with another

meritocracy refers to social stratification

based entirely on personal merit

college professor with advanced degrees

low status consistency

historical practice in england of passing property to only the first born male descendant

the law of primogeniture

structural social mobility

change in the social position of many people due to changes in society itself

accurately describes the peoples republic of china

a new set of social classes is gradually emerging

compared to other high income nations the us has

more social inequality

davis-moore thesis

more important jobs must provide enough rewards to attract the talent necessary to perform them

capitalism "reproduces the class structure"

society operates so that class differences are carred from one generation to the next

work involving mostly mental activity

white-collar work

social position is based on a person's

all of the above

weber envisioned inequality in terms of

a socioeconomic status hierarchy

common micro lever pattern involving social interaction

people tend to socialize with others of about the same social position

laura wears an expensive dress to impress her friends

conspicuous consumption

idea that social inequality benefits society is associated with

structural-functional approach

idea that social inequality is harmful and divides society is associated with

social-conflict approach

which society comes closest to being egalitarian

hunting and gathering

income inequality is greatest in which of the following regions

latin america

in the us economic inequality has been


us is middle class because

we have no history of nobility, as in europe

earnings from work or any investment


the richest 20 percent of the population ear about...... times as much as the poorest 20 percent


total amount of financial assets minus any debts


richest 5 percent of us families own about what percentage of privately owned property


the wealthiest 1 percent of us fams controls about...... of the nations privately held wealth


occupational prestige

occupational rankings are much the same in all high income nations

about...... of the richest people in the us gained at least some of their fortune from inheritance

two thirds

in 2007 about.......of us adults over the age of 25 were college graduates


what factors affect social position in the us

all of the above

in us median income for african american families is about..... as much as that for non hispanic white families


40 to 50 of us population falls within

middle class

contains the lease amount of racial and ethnic diversity

the upper upper class

which class forms the core of the industrial proletariat

working class

people of low class position

all of the above

most likely to be liberal on a social issue

rich, highly educated people

people of low social position are more liberal on.... issues and more conservative on...... issues

economic; social

intergenerational social mobility refers to change in social position

by children in relation to their parents

change in social position during a persons lifetime

intragenerational social mobility

during the last twenty years which category of the us population has experienced the largest gains in average income

the highest paid 20 percent

true about social mobility in the us

all of the above

relative poverty

is found everywhere

in 2007 what share of us was poor


which age category has the highest poverty rate


most poor people in the us are

non hispanic whites

feminization of poverty

women make up an increasing percentage of the poor

percentage of all poor families in the us headed by a single women


in us an increasing percentage of the poor are

single women and their children

the cause of poverty lies in

too few available jobs

how many people in us were homeless for some time during 2005

754,000 although the real number could be several times higher

true statement about homeless

one third of all homeless people are entire familes

death of 52 workers in bangladeshi shows

the loves of the worlds poor are far worst than many people in the us realize

the wealthiest 20 percent of the global population receives about what percentage of all global income


the poorest 20 percent of the global population receives about what percentage of global income


high income countries that are 22 percent of the worlds population enjoy about how much of the worlds income


in poor nations poverty is.... than in the us

more widespread and severe

the majority of the worlds people live in

middle income nations

in lowest income nations, half of all children born die by age


about how many people suffer from chronic hunger

1 billion

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