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sociology #2

STUDY
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two or more people who identify and interact with one another
social group
temporary, loosely formed collection of people who may or may not interact
crowd
primary groups
all of the above
every society's most important primary group
family
secondary group
impersonal and engages in some specific activity
Not a characteristic of secondary groups
personal orientation
we see the ...... as a means to an end, and ..... as a end itself
secondary group; primary group
group leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks
instrumental leadership
group leadership that emphasizes collective well-bing
expressive leadership
type of leadership style that takes charge of making decisions and makes sure people do what they are told
authoritarian leadership
type of leader encourages everyone in a group to have a say in what happens
democratic leader
type of leader downplays their own power, letting the group function more or less on its own
laissez-faire leaders
"shock generator" showed
people are surprisingly likely to follow the orders of not only real authority figures but also groups of ordinary individuals
Not an expression of groupthink
the group seeks diverse members and ends up with being unable to reach consensus
social group that people use as a point of reference in making evaluations or decisions
reference group
type of social group that command's a member's esteem and loyalty
in-group
social group toward which a person feels competition or opposition
out-group
triad
social group with three members
social group open to any and all people as new members
all of the above
typically true of a social network
networks are fuzzy groups made up of people we know of rather than those we know well
formal organizations
large secondary groups with goal orientation
maximum securtiy prison would be what organizations
coercive organization
formal organization people join to obtain money and other material benefits
utilitarian organization
not a trait of bureaucrazy
favoring family members over strangers
all factors outside an organization that affect the organizations operation
organizational environment
harmful effect of formal organizations
organizations create alienation
keeping a bleeding patient waiting while filling out lots of paperwork is
bureaucratic ritualism
tendency of bureaucratic organizations to keep themselves going
bureaucratic inertia
iron law of oligarchy
bureaucracy always means the few rule the many
idea behind scientific management
applying scientific principles can make a business more efficient
mcdonaldization of society
mcdonalds organization principles coming to dominate all of society
reason to study sexuality from the sociological perspective
all of the above
biological distinction between males and females
sex
deeper voices in males
secondary sex characteristics
comparative research
although sex has a biological foundation sexual practices vary from place to place as culture
importance of alfred kinseys research on sexuality
showing that people were less conventional than most people thought
when was sexual counterrevolution
1980
effect of sexual counterrevolution
to encourage people to limit their numbers of sexual partners or, to abstain from sex entirely
research on attitudes towards premarital sex tells us
the public is more accepting of premarital sex than it was a generation ago
....... of married men,........ of married women, remain faithful
75; 90
little or no attraction to people of either sex
asexuality
sexual orientation is rooted in
human biology, although social experience plays some role
......of men.......of women in us claim that they have a homosexual identity
2.8' 1.4
homophobia
fear of close personal interaction with people thought to be gay, lesbian, or bi
people to oppose pornography argue that
all of the above
prostitution is most common in
poor nations where women have fewer economic opportunities
a reason not to view prostitution as simply a matter of personal choice involving adults
all of the above
statement about rape not true
in most cases of rape the victim does not know the attacker
widespread, false idea about rape
women who are raped must have encouraged their attackers
society needs to regulate human sexuality
structural-functional approach
the more global our view of sexuality
the more variety we see in the meanings people attach to sexuality
norm stating that people remain virgins until marriage
has become weaker
symbolic-interaction approach to sexuality topic
how individuals in various settings engages in different sexual behavior and attach different meanings to sexual activity
not consistent with the social-conflict approach
the process of reality construction is highly variable so that one groups views of sexuality may well differ from another
criticism of the social-conflict approach's view of sexuality
all of the above
the recognized violation of cultural norms
deviance
crime differs from deviance in that crime
refers to a violation of norms enacted into law
biological approaches offer
a very limited understanding of crime
value of psychological theories of deviance is limited because
very few people experience an unsuccessful socialization
functions of deviance noted by emile durkheim
all of the above
process of seeking conventional goals but rejecting the conventional means to achieve them
innovation
low-paid, compulsively conforming bank teller who never seems to want to get ahead but never seems to do anything wrong
ritualist
cloward and ohlin extended mertons theory of deviance stating that crime
reflects both limited legitimate opportunity as well as accessible illegitimate opportunity
the code of the streets
in jail or worse
labeling theory
deviance arises not so much from what people do as how others respond to what they do
powerful and negative label that greatly changes a person's self-concept and social identity
stigma
medicalization of deviance
all of the above
edwin sutherlands differential association theory links deviance to
the amount of contact a person has with others who encourage or discourage conventional behavior
control theory suggests which of the following categories of people would be most likely to engage in deviance
youngsters who hand out waiting for something to happen
what society labels as a deviant is based primarily on
differences in power between various categories of people
crime committed by persons of high social position in the course of their occupations
white-collar crime
illegal actions of a corporation or people acting on its behalf
corporate crime
organized crime
any business that supplies illegal goods or services
hate crime
criminal act motivated by race or other bias
gender figures into the study of deviance because
every society in the world applies stronger normative controls to females than to males
a crime is composed of which two components
the act and criminal intent
criminal statistics gathered by federal bureau of investigation reflect
offenses known to the police
the actual amount of crime in the us is about..... what official reports indicate
three times greater than
men who represent about half the us population account for about........ of all the arrests for property crime
67 percent
the us men account for about....... of all arrest for violent crime
about 82 percent
factors that explain the high crime rate in the us
our emphasis on individual economic success which weakens the social fabric
oldest justification for punishing an offender
retribution
if a parent threatens a child with punishment in order to discourage wrongdoing the parent is using punishment to accomplish what
deterrence
criminal recidivism
later offenses by people previously convicted of crimes
advantages of community-based corrections
all of the above
social stratification
gives some people more privileges and opportunities than others
not true about stratification
a family's social standing typically changes a great deal from generation to generation
social stratification may involve differences in
all of the above
person who moves from one occupation to another that provides about the same level of rewards
horizontal social mobility
societies that have caste systems have economies that are
agrarian
ending of apartheid in south africa has led to
society becoming a meritocracy
the historical replacement of caste systems with class systems
replaces one find of inequality with another
meritocracy refers to social stratification
based entirely on personal merit
college professor with advanced degrees
low status consistency
historical practice in england of passing property to only the first born male descendant
the law of primogeniture
structural social mobility
change in the social position of many people due to changes in society itself
accurately describes the peoples republic of china
a new set of social classes is gradually emerging
compared to other high income nations the us has
more social inequality
davis-moore thesis
more important jobs must provide enough rewards to attract the talent necessary to perform them
capitalism "reproduces the class structure"
society operates so that class differences are carred from one generation to the next
work involving mostly mental activity
white-collar work
social position is based on a person's
all of the above
weber envisioned inequality in terms of
a socioeconomic status hierarchy
common micro lever pattern involving social interaction
people tend to socialize with others of about the same social position
laura wears an expensive dress to impress her friends
conspicuous consumption
idea that social inequality benefits society is associated with
structural-functional approach
idea that social inequality is harmful and divides society is associated with
social-conflict approach
which society comes closest to being egalitarian
hunting and gathering
income inequality is greatest in which of the following regions
latin america
in the us economic inequality has been
decreasing
us is middle class because
we have no history of nobility, as in europe
earnings from work or any investment
income
the richest 20 percent of the population ear about...... times as much as the poorest 20 percent
12
total amount of financial assets minus any debts
wealth
richest 5 percent of us families own about what percentage of privately owned property
60
the wealthiest 1 percent of us fams controls about...... of the nations privately held wealth
35
occupational prestige
occupational rankings are much the same in all high income nations
about...... of the richest people in the us gained at least some of their fortune from inheritance
two thirds
in 2007 about.......of us adults over the age of 25 were college graduates
30
what factors affect social position in the us
all of the above
in us median income for african american families is about..... as much as that for non hispanic white families
57
40 to 50 of us population falls within
middle class
contains the lease amount of racial and ethnic diversity
the upper upper class
which class forms the core of the industrial proletariat
working class
people of low class position
all of the above
most likely to be liberal on a social issue
rich, highly educated people
people of low social position are more liberal on.... issues and more conservative on...... issues
economic; social
intergenerational social mobility refers to change in social position
by children in relation to their parents
change in social position during a persons lifetime
intragenerational social mobility
during the last twenty years which category of the us population has experienced the largest gains in average income
the highest paid 20 percent
true about social mobility in the us
all of the above
relative poverty
is found everywhere
in 2007 what share of us was poor
12.5
which age category has the highest poverty rate
children
most poor people in the us are
non hispanic whites
feminization of poverty
women make up an increasing percentage of the poor
percentage of all poor families in the us headed by a single women
51
in us an increasing percentage of the poor are
single women and their children
the cause of poverty lies in
too few available jobs
how many people in us were homeless for some time during 2005
754,000 although the real number could be several times higher
true statement about homeless
one third of all homeless people are entire familes
death of 52 workers in bangladeshi shows
the loves of the worlds poor are far worst than many people in the us realize
the wealthiest 20 percent of the global population receives about what percentage of all global income
74
the poorest 20 percent of the global population receives about what percentage of global income
2
high income countries that are 22 percent of the worlds population enjoy about how much of the worlds income
80
in poor nations poverty is.... than in the us
more widespread and severe
the majority of the worlds people live in
middle income nations
in lowest income nations, half of all children born die by age
10
about how many people suffer from chronic hunger
1 billion
absolute poverty
life threatening
region contains the largest percentage of the worlds street children
latin america
of 1 billion poverty people how many are women
70
type of slavery that refers to one person owning another
chattel slavery
type of slavery consists of employers holding workers by paying them too little to cover their debts
debt bondage
applying modernization theory to global poverty you might point to which of the following traits of low income nations
all of the above
colonialism
some nations enrich themselves through political and economic control of others
global economy in which multinational corporations exploit people in low income nations
neocolonialism
if you were applying modernization theory to the problem of global poverty you might expect rich nations to aid the economic development of poor nations by
all of the above
some critics claim that modernization theory
ignores how rich nations prevent the economic development of poor nations
dependency theory differs from modernization theory by
explaining global inequality in terms of the exploitation of poor countries by rich countries
andre frank states that poor nations
were underdeveloped or made poor by rich nations
while modernization theory focuses on..... dependency theory focuses on......
all of the above
what nations are the core of the world economy
high income nations
what did wollerstein not consider to be a cause of dependency
lack of integration into the world economy
over the course of the last century the extent of global economic inequality has
increased
global region that has made the greatest strides out of poverty
asia
the sociological approaches to global poverty show us that poverty is
all of the above