apush ch. 36

taft-hartley act
1) outlawed closed shops (contract requiring workers to join a union before being hired
2) permitting states to pass "right to work" laws outlawing the union shop (contract requiring workers to join a union after being hired)
3) outlawing secondary boycotts (the practice of several unions giving support to a striking union by joining a boycott of a company's products)
4) giving the president the power to invoke an 80-day cooling off period before a strike endangering the national safety could be called
GI Bill of Rights
provided college education for returning World War II veterans (commonly referred to as G.I.s) as well as one year of unemployment compensation; provided loans for returning veterans to buy homes and start businesses
Veterans Administration
guarantees $16 billion in loans for WWII to buy homes, farms and start businesses
Dr. Benjamin Spock
an American pediatrician whose book Baby and Child Care is one of the biggest best-sellers of all time; Its revolutionary message to mothers was that "you know more than you think you do."; the first pediatrician to study psychoanalysis to try to understand children's needs and family dynamics
Federal Housing Administration
part of the National Housing Act of 1934; insured loans made by banks and other private lenders for home building and home buying; tax deductions for interest payments
White Flight
the sociological and demographic term denoting a trend wherein whites leave urban communities as the minority population increases
Baby Boom
period marked by a greatly increased birth rate
Missouri Gang
Truman's cronies
"The Buck Stops Here"
a phrase that was popularized by President Truman; The phrase refers to the fact that the President has to make the decisions and accept the ultimate responsibility for those decisions
Big Three
The leaders of the three major Allies of World War II: Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill
Yalta Conference
wartime meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union—President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and General Secretary Joseph Stalin; for the purpose of discussing Europe's post-war reorganization; intended to discuss the re-establishment of the nations of war-torn Europe
Occupation Zones
divisions of Germany and Austria after WWII, into Soviet, French, British and U.S. temporary territories
United Nations
an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace; founded to replace the League of Nations; to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for dialogue
Cold War
the continuing state of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition existing after World War II between the Communist World - primarily the Soviet Union and its satellite states and allies - and the powers of the Western world, primarily the United States and its allies; we never directly fought them
International Monetary Fund
made loans to and supervised the economic policies of poorer nations with debt troubles
Security Council
important part of the United Nations; has to maintain international peace and security; takes care of the establishment of peacekeeping operations, the establishment of international sanctions, and the authorization of military action
Nuremberg Trials
a series of military tribunals, held by the Allied forces of World War II, for the prosecution of prominent members of the political, military, and economic leadership of the defeated Nazi Germany
Big Four
France, Britain, America, USSR
Satellite Nations
a country that appears to be independent, but is under heavy political and economic influence or control by another country; used mainly to refer to Central and Eastern European countries of the Warsaw Pact during the Cold War
Iron Curtain
symbolized the ideological fighting and physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War; between western democracy and eastern communism
Berlin Airlift
carried supplies to the people in West Berlin
Containment Doctrine
made to stop the spread of communism; governed U.S. policy for decades
George F. Kennan
expert on Soviet affairs that contributed to the Containment Doctrine; said that if we contained Russia would cause the Soviets to back off their Communist ideology of world domination (X Article)
Truman Doctrine
a policy set forth by President Truman; stating that the U.S. would support Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid to prevent their falling into the Soviet sphere; anytime another country is threatened by a takeover, America will step in to help
George C. Marshall
an American military leader, Chief of Staff of the Army, Secretary of State, and the third Secretary of Defense.; Once noted as the "organizer of victory" by Winston Churchill for his leadership of the Allied victory in World War II; served as the United States Army Chief of Staff during the war and as the chief military adviser to FDR; inspired the Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
an extensive program of economic aid to help the nations of Europe revive their economies and also strengthen democratic governments; very successful
National Security Act
provided for: 1) a centralized Department of Defense to coordinate operations of the Army, Navy and Air Force 2) the creation of the National Security Council to coordinate the making of foreign policy in the Cold War 3) the creation of the Central Intelligence Agency
Department of Defense
replaced the War Department; to coordinate operations of the Army, Navy and Air Force
Secretary of Defense
the head of the United States Department of Defense; to be the principal defense policy advisor to the President and is responsible for the formulation of general defense policy related to all matters of direct and primary concern to the DoD, and for the execution of approved policy
Joint Chiefs of Staff
a group of military leaders in the U.S. armed forces who advise the civilian government of the United States
National Security Council
coordinated the making of foreign policy in the Cold War
Central Intelligence Agency
to employ spies to gather information on foreign governments
Selective Service System
the way that the U.S. maintains information on those potentially subject to military conscription
North Atlantic Treaty Organization- a military alliance for defending all members from outside attack (by Communists)
Douglas MacArthur
took firm charge of the reconstruction of Japan
Chinese Nationalists
aka Kuomintang party; corrupt; inefficient
Jiang Jieshi/ Chiang Kai-shek
an influential leader of the Nationalist Party
Chinese Communists
maintaining a unitary government centralizing the state, military, and media; popular because it gave hope to the impoverished people
Mao Zedong
Chinese Communist leader; not a puppet of Stalin
hydrogen bomb; first used by America on the South Pacific; 1,000 X more powerful than the A-bomb
loyalty oaths
an oath of loyalty to an organization, institution, or state of which an individual is a member; used by Truman to weed out the communists in America
Dennis v. United States
the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the Smith Act of 1940, which made it illegal to advocate or to teach the overthrow of the government by force or to belong to an organization with this objective
House Committee on Un-American Activities
originally established to seek out Nazis, was reactivated in the postwar years to find Communists; investigated government officials and looked for Communist influence in organizations
Richard M. Nixon
led the chase of Alger Hiss; House Committee on Un-American Activities member
Alger Hiss
prominent ex-New Dealer and a distinguished member of the "eastern establishment"; accused of being a Communist; convicted for perjury
Joseph McCarthy
a Republican senator from Wisconsin; accused 205 people of being Communists within the State Department; most powerful man because people feared him
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
American communists who were executed in 1953 for conspiracy to commit espionage. The charges related to passing information about the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union. This was the first execution of civilians for espionage in United States history
Thomas E. Dewey
Republican presidential candidate for the election of 1948
Strom Thurmond
"Dixiecrat" presidential candidate for the election of 1948
Henry Wallace
Progressive presidential candidate for the election of 1948
Fair Deal
a 21 point program of domestic legislation outlining a series of proposed actions in the fields of economic development and social welfare; called for improved housing, full employment, a higher minimum wage, better farm price supports, new TVA's, and an extension on Social Security
38th Parallel
a dividing line for Korea in 1896 for the Soviet troops in the north and American troops in the South
South Korea's second largest metropolis after Seoul
a 58-page formerly-classified report issued by the United States National Security Council; top secret; shaped U.S. foreign policy in the Cold War for the next 20 years
Police Action
a euphemism for a military action undertaken without a formal declaration of war