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177 terms

EXAM 2

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Written in 1285, in what document were British police practices codified?
Statute of Winchester
In the development of law enforcement in English cities and towns, who had the responsibility of maintaining the night watch?
Bailiff
What was the name of the individual who ran a type of fencing operation in London in the early eighteenth century? He would negotiate with legitimate owners for a ransom of their possessions.
Jonathan Wild
Some have attributed the growth of modern police forces to what type of alcohol?
Gin
Who is credited with creating the London Metropolitan Police?
Robert Peel
What 1931 commission recognized that Prohibition was unenforceable and reported that it carried a great potential for police corruption?
The Wickersham Commission
What was the most influential of the Wickersham Commission reports?
Report on the Enforcement of the Prohibition Laws of the United States
What was the name of the agency, formed in 1969, to assist police forces across the country in acquiring the latest technology and in adopting new enforcement methods?
Law Enforcement Assistance Administration
Congress created the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration with the passage of what act?
Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act
What term refers to the application of social science techniques to the study of police administration for the purpose of increasing effectiveness, reducing the frequency of citizen complaints, and enhancing the efficient use of available resources?
Scientific police management
What is considered the most famous application of social research principles to police management?
Kansas City preventive patrol experiment
What is considered the backbone of police work?
Patrol
What is the term for using research in everyday police procedures to evaluate current practices and to guide officers and police executives in future decision making?
Evidence-based policing
What has been called the single "most powerful force for change" in policing today?
Evidence-based policing
Under what department would you find the FBI?
Department of Justice
Under which department would you find the United States Secret Service?
Department of Homeland Security
Under what department would you find the Federal Air Marshals Program?
Department of Transportation
What is CODIS?
A computerized forensic database of DNA profiles of offenders convicted of serious crimes
What was the first state to create a law enforcement agency?
Texas
On what two models are state law enforcement agencies usually organized?
Centralized and decentralized
Which of the following is a function of centralized police agencies?
Maintain a centralized criminal records repository. etc.
Which model of policing draws a distinction between traffic enforcement on the state highways and other state-level law enforcement functions by creating at least two separate agencies?
Decentralized
What agency has been called the "first modern state police agency"?
Pennsylvania State Police
What agency is the nation's largest law enforcement agency?
NYPD
Approximately how many municipal police departments are there in the United States?
12,760
Who typically appoints someone to the position of police chief?
Mayor
Which of the following is a private security agency?
Pinkerton's Inc.
Which of the following is a major reason for the quick growth of the American proprietary security sector?
An increase in crimes in the workplace, etc.
Early American policing was based on the Roman model of policing? True/False
False
The London Metropolitan Police force was the model for police forces around the world? True/False
True
One of the major factors determining the development of American law enforcement was the frontier.? True/False
True
Most of the original vigilantes of the American West were honest men and women trying to forge an organized and predictable lifestyle out of the challenging situations they encountered? True/False
True
Alice Stebbins Wells was the first policewoman in the world, serving with the New York City Police Department in 1910? True/False
False
The organization of American law enforcement has been called the most complex in the world? True/False
True
The creation of the FBI was motivated, at least in part, by the inability of other agencies to stem the rising tide of American political and business corruption? True/False
True
Most state police agencies were created in the late nineteenth or early twentieth century to meet specific needs? True/False
True
The majority of local police agencies employ more than ten full-time officers? True/False
False
In most countries public police outnumber private police? True/False
False
According to the National Center for Policy Analysis, private security personnel outnumber public law enforcement officers in the United States by nearly three to one? True/False
True
The FBI operates legal attaché offices in a number of major cities around the world? True/False
True
Airport security is an example of private security services? True/False
True
The London Metropolitan Police were well received by the citizens from the start? True/False
False
The National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals recommended that a college degree be made a basic prerequisite for police employment by the 1980s? True/False
True
FBI headquarters are located in New York City? True/False
False
State police are generally responsible for serving court papers, including civil summonses, and for maintaining security within state courtrooms? True/False
False
Sheriffs are responsible for operating the county jails and are appointed to the position of sheriff by the mayor? True/False
False
According to one report, employment in public police agencies is expected to grow by 4% per year, whereas employment in the field of private security is expected to expand by only 2.8% per year for the foreseeable future? True/False
False
Experts estimate that the money spent on private security in this country exceeds the combined budgets of all law enforcement agencies - local, state, and federal? True/False
True
Who founded the Bow Street Runners?
Henry Fielding
What conclusions can be drawn from the Kansas City preventive patrol study?
There was no significant change in any of the patrol zones
What is the Criminal Justice Information Services Division?
The central repository for criminal justice information services in the FBI
According to one report, approximately 67% of the sheriff's departments in the United States employ how many sworn officers per department?
Fewer than 25
What agency was known as the new police?
London Metropolitan Police Force
The majority of local police agencies employ how many full-time officers?
Fewer than 10
What was the finding of the second Kansas City study that focused on response time?
A rapid response had little effect on the arrest of offenders and the satisfaction of citizens
How many special agents are employed by the FBI?
Nearly 13,000
How many sworn officers are employed on the New York City Police Department?
About 38,000
Where is the largest jail system in the world located?
Los Angeles
What is the average daily inmate population of the Los Angeles County Jail System?
18,400
According to one report, how much of the nation's critical infrastructure is protected by private security?
85%
In what year did the New York City Police Department begin?
1844
What is the process of crime analysis and police management developed by the New York City Police Department in the mid-1990s to help police managers better assess their performance and foresee the potential for crime?
CompStat
What are quality-of-life offenses?
Minor violations that demoralize residents and businesspeople by creating disorder
Which of the core operational strategies in policing has been the backbone of police work since the time of Sir Robert Peel?
Preventive patrol
Which of the core operational strategies in policing consumes most of the resources of most local and state-level police agencies?
Preventive patrol
What is seen as the dominant operational policing strategy and has been the backbone of police work?
Preventive patrol
What percentage of daily calls to 9-1-1 systems across the country are directed to the police rather than emergency medical or fire services?
About 70%
What is the foundation on which the entire criminal investigation process is built?
An effective preliminary investigation
What is the term for information about a crime that can provide a basis for determining the perpetrator's identity?
Solvability factor
Which of the core operational strategies is the least well-developed by the police profession?
Problem solving
Which of the police operational strategies includes activities such as dispatch, training, human resource management, and property and evidence control?
Support services
What is the term for the administrative activities that control, direct, and coordinate police personnel, resources, and activities in an effort to prevent crime, apprehend criminals, and recover stolen property?
Police management
What are the general categories of roles within most police agencies?
Line and staff
What is the term used to identify who reports to whom?
Chain of command
Which police era was characterized by close ties between the police and public officials?
Political period
What is the term that refers to the number of police personnel or the number of units supervised by a particular commander?
Span of control
Which police era is new and continues to evolve and grow out of concern for terrorists attacks?
Homeland security era
Which style of policing is basically concerned with achieving order maintenance through control of illegal and disruptive behavior?
Watchman style
Which style of policing enforces the letter of the law?
Legalistic style
In which style of policing do the police see themselves more as helpers than as soldiers in a war on crime?
Service style
What policing concept assigned officers semipermanently to particular neighborhoods, where it was expected they would become familiar with the inhabitants and with their problems and concerns?
Team policing
What type of policing attempts to forge a partnership between the police and the community, so that they can work together on solving problems of crime?
Community policing
What type of policing takes the view that many crimes are caused by existing social conditions in the community and that to control crime, police attempt to uncover and effectively address these underlying social problems?
Problem-solving policing
What type of policing retains the traditional police goal of professional crime fighting but enlarges the enforcement target to include nontraditional kinds of criminals?
Strategic policing
According to a 2001 report by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, how many full-time sworn personnel were regularly engaged in community policing activities at the state and local levels?
113,000
What are the highest priorities of the police under the community policing philosophy?
Whatever problems disturb the community the most
What type of intelligence includes gaining or developing information related to threats of terrorism or crime and using this information to apprehend offenders, harden targets, and use strategies that will eliminate or mitigate the threat?
Tactical intelligence
What type of intelligence provides information to decision makers about the changing nature of threats for the purpose of developing response strategies and reallocating resources to accomplish effective prevention?
Strategic intelligence
What is the central purpose of fusion centers?
Information sharing
According to a report, what percentage of state police agencies requires a four-year college degree for employment?
4%
According to Sir Robert Peel in 1822, the basic mission for which the police exist is to reduce crime and disorder.
True
The case of Davis v. City of Dallas upheld a police department policy requiring a minimum of 45 semester hours of successful college-level study for new recruits.
True
A preliminary investigation begins when the police arrive at the crime scene.
False
Because almost all police agencies need support, only the smallest departments have only line operations.
True
Compared to the watchman style, the legalistic style uses discretion liberally.
False
Legalistic departments routinely avoid community disputes arising from violations of social norms that do not break the law.
True
Today, an increasing number of law enforcement administrators embrace the role of service provider.
True
Community policing efforts are limited to urban areas.
False
Community policing has become the dominant theme of contemporary police reform in America.
True
While criminal investigation is typically part of the intelligence-gathering process, the intelligence function of a police department is more exploratory and more broadly focused than a single criminal investigation.
True
Community interest is a factor that may influence police use of discretion.
True
Unpopular laws are not likely to get much attention from law enforcement officers.
True
There is an increasing emphasis being placed in the formal education of police officers.
True
Noneducated police officers are more likely to leave police work, question orders, and request reassignment more frequently than educated officers.
True
Most federal agencies require college degrees for entry-level positions.
False
During the selection process, nearly all local police departments use personal interviews.
True
Municipal and county agencies trail state agencies by a wide margin in hiring and promoting women.
False
The watchman style of policing was typified by the Los Angeles police officers who took part in the infamous beating of Rodney King.
True
Under the philosophy of community policing, the police are seen as one department among many responsible for improving the quality of life.
True
Community policing is a one-way street.
False
According to research, what percentage of all calls to the police involve situations that actually require a law enforcement response, that is, situations that might lead to arrest and eventual prosecution?
10% to 20%
What is the concept that is based on the notion that physical decay in a community can breed disorder and lead to crime by signaling that laws are not being enforced?
Broken windows model of policing
Which of the core operational strategies in policing is the newest?
Problem solving
What is the term used for the process of discovering, collecting, preparing, identifying, and presenting evidence to determine what happened and who is responsible when a crime occurs?
Criminal investigation
Under which police operational strategy would you find the methodology SARA?
Problem solving
Which police era began in the 1930s and ended in the 1970s and was characterized by pride in professional crime fighting?
Reform era
Which police era stresses the service role of police officers?
Community policing era
Which police era is new, continues to evolve, and grew out of concern for terrorist attacks?
Homeland security era
Which policing style could be linked to the political era?
Watchman style
Which policing style can be linked to the reform era?
Legalistic style
Who are the police researchers credited with evolving the concept of community policing?
Kelling and Trojanowicz
In early studies looking at citizens' attitudes developed through face-to-face interaction with individual police officers, which group generally had a far higher level of dissatisfaction with the police?
African-Americans
What is the name of the process that evaluates information collected from diverse sources, integrates the relevant information into a cohesive package, and produces conclusions or estimates about a criminal phenomenon by using the scientific approach to problem solving?
Criminal intelligence
According to the International Association of Women Police, how many female police chiefs are located throughout the United States?
More than 100
Which Constitutional amendment guarantees the right to an attorney?
Sixth Amendment
Which amendment is concerned with search and seizure?
Fourth Amendment
What was the first landmark case concerning search and seizure?
Weeks v. United States
What United States Supreme Court case formed the basis of the exclusionary rule?
Weeks v. United States
What is a writ of certiorari?
An order from the Supreme Court to the lower court to prepare the records for review
What principle states that illegally seized evidence cannot be used in a trial and neither can evidence be used that derives from an illegal seizure?
Fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine
Which Supreme Court decision applied the exclusionary rule to criminal prosecutions at the state level?
Mapp v. Ohio
In the 1984 case of U.S. v. Leon, the Court recognized what exception to the exclusionary rule?
Good faith
Which case is known as the "inevitable discovery exception"?
Nix v. Williams
What 1984 Supreme Court decision is known as the "public safety exception"?
New York v. Quarles
Which Constitutional amendment guarantees the right to reasonable bail?
Eighth Amendment
Which Constitutional amendment guarantees the right against cruel and unusual punishments?
Eighth Amendment
What United States Supreme Court decision articulated the principle of the "fruit of the poisoned tree doctrine"?
Silverhorne Lumber Co. v. U.S.
Which Supreme Court decision limited the search incident to arrest to the area under the immediate control of the person arrested?
Chimel v. California
In which case was the ruling that police officers may not enter a home to conduct a warrantless search if one resident gives permission but the other says no?
Georgia v. Randolph
In which case did the Supreme Court rule that for a defendant to be entitled to Fourth Amendment protection, he must demonstrate that he personally has an expectation of privacy in the place searched and that his expectation is reasonable?
Minnesota v. Carter
What 1984 case reinforced the concept of good faith?
Massachusetts v. Sheppard
What 1987 Supreme Court case upheld the use of evidence obtained with a search warrant that was inaccurate in its specifics?
Maryland v. Garrison
What 1990 Supreme Court decision was based on evidence discovered by police in an apartment after receiving consent to search by a woman that police reasonably believed had the authority to grant consent?
Illinois v. Rodriguez
In what case did the Supreme Court recognize the need for emergency warrantless entries under certain circumstances when it ruled that the police "may enter a home without a warrant when they have an objectively reasonable basis for believing that an occupant is seriously injured or imminently threatened with such injury"?
Brigham City v. Stuart
What 1990 decision by the Supreme Court extended the authority of police to search locations in a house where a potentially dangerous person could hide while an arrest warrant is being served?
Maryland v. Buie
What 1995 decision ruled that police generally must knock and announce their identity before entering a dwelling or other premises, even when armed with a search warrant?
Wilson v. Arkansas
What 1997 Supreme Court decision placed the burden on the individual courts to "determine whether the facts and circumstances of the particular entry justified dispensing with the requirement" to knock and announce?
Richards v. Wisconsin
What surprising 2006 decision allowed the use at trial of evidence found by police who enter a home to execute a warrant without first following the knock-and-announce requirement?
Hudson v. Michigan
What is the name of a search warrant issued on the basis of probable cause to believe that evidence of a crime, while not presently at the place described, will likely be there when the warrant is executed?
Anticipatory warrant
In what case did the Court rule that unless the suspect gives consent or an emergency exists, an arrest warrant is necessary if an arrest requires entry into a suspect's private residence?
Payton v. New York
In what case did the Court rule that the police went beyond what was allowed in a pat-down search when the officer felt what he believed to be a lump of crack cocaine in the jacket pocket but had to manipulate the cocaine to be certain that it was crack cocaine?
Minnesota v. Dickerson
In what 1990 Supreme Court case involving the legality of highway sobriety checkpoints did the Court rule that such stops are reasonable insofar as they are essential to the welfare of the community as a whole?
Michigan Dept. of State Police v. Sitz
As part of an individual's right to privacy, what Supreme Court case ruled that the defendant could not be ordered to undergo surgery because such a magnitude of intrusion into his body was unacceptable?
Winston v. Lee
In what Supreme Court case did the Court rule that evidence secured from recording devices carried on the body of an undercover agent or an informant could be used in court?
On Lee v. U.S.
In which case did a federal appellate court rule that the consent a defendant had given to police for his apartment to be searched did not extend to the search of his computer once it was taken to a police station?
U.S. v. Carey
In what 1987 case did a federal appellate court rule that the defendant could be prosecuted for heroin discovered during medical treatment, even though the defendant had objected to the treatment?
U.S. v. Borchardt
An arrest occurs when a law enforcement officer restricts a person's freedom to leave? True/False
True
Arrests that follow the questioning of a suspect are probably the most common type? T/F
True
The first significant Supreme Court case involving an automobile was Carroll v. U.S? True/False
True
Warrantless vehicle searches are limited to the area under the immediate control of the operator? True/False
False
The USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 made it easier for police investigators to intercept many forms of electronic communications? True/False
True
Electronic evidence is latent evidence? True/False
True
In which case did the Supreme Court extend the protection against warrantless searches to overnight guests residing in the home of another?
Minnesota v. Olson
In which 1995 case did the United States Supreme Court create a "computer errors exception" to the exclusionary rule?
Arizona v. Evans
Which 1971 Supreme Court case allowed the seizure of evidence in plain view as long as the police had a reason to be there?
Coolidge v. New Hampshire
Which Supreme Court case, decided in 1987, ruled that evidence be in plain view, without requiring officers to move or dislodge objects?
Arizona v. Hicks
Which Supreme Court case ruled that inadvertence, or accident, is not a necessary condition of plain view?
Horton v. California
In what 2009 case did the Supreme Court overrule Michigan v. Jackson?
Montejo v. Louisiana
Suspects who flee from the police and throw away evidence as they retreat may later be arrested based on the incriminating nature of the abandoned evidence. That was the decision in what Supreme Court case?
California v. Hodari D.
What 2005 decision ruled that the use of a drug-sniffing dog during a routine and lawful traffic stop is permissible and may not even be a search within the meaning of the Fourth Amendment?
Illinois v. Caballes
What Supreme Court case expanded the Carroll doctrine to include watercraft?
U.S. v. Villamonte-Marquez
What 1985 decision expanded warrantless searches of vehicles to include motor homes?
California v. Carney
Which mid-2000 case dealt with the physical manipulation of a carry-on bag on a bus in which the Court ruled that it violated Fourth Amendment protections?
Bond v. U.S.
Which 1991 Supreme Court decision allows warrantless, suspicionless "sweeps" of buses, plains, trains, and city streets under certain conditions?
Florida v. Bostick
What 2001 Supreme Court decision ruled that the use of a thermal-imaging device exceeded the protections allowed by the Fourth Amendment?
Kyllo v. U.S.
Which 1978 Supreme Court case established a minimization requirement to electronic surveillance?
U.S. v. Scott
In which Supreme Court case did the Court first recognize the need for emergency searches?
Warden v. Hayden