Science chapter 11
Terms in this set (37)
A temperature scale in which water freezes at 32 degrees and boils at 212 degrees
A temperature scale in which water freezes at 0 degrees and boils at 100 degrees.
An instrument that measures temperature.
Energy that an object possesses due to the temperature
Scattered equally in all direction
Lowest possible temperature at which energy is as close to zero as it can be (-273 Celsius)
A temperature scale that starts at absolute zero and has units the same as Celsius degrees.
A phase of matter that holds its shape and does not flow.
A phase of matter that flows easily and changes shape.
A phase of matter that flows and also expands or contracts to fill any container.
The forces Between atoms or molecules that determine the phase of matter.
Temperature at which melting or freezing occurs
Temperature at which boiling or condensation occurs
thermal energy that is moving or is capable of moving
The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of a substance by 1 degree Celsius. Knowing the specific heat tells how quickly the material will change as it gains or loses energy?
the transfer of heat by the direct contact of particles of matter
when things are at the same temperature and no heat flows
the transfer of heat by the motion of matter, such as by moving air or water.
Electromagnetic waves produced by objects because of their temperature
What are the temperatures for Celsius and Fahrenheit related to freezing and boiling point?
boiling 212 degrees f and 100 degrees Celsius freezing 32 degrees f and o degrees c
convert Celsius to Fahrenheit and vice versa
F = (9xC)/5 +32
how molecules move in each state of matter, how they hold their shape, and their ability to flow or not flow.
the molecules slow down when you take away heat. changes from a liquid to solid.
thermal energy, heat, & temperature are related. Explain each one & make connections between them.
thermal energy is the sum of energy of molecules, heat is thermal energy transfered, temperature is the measure of thermal energy
What is a thermistor
A thermistor is a type of resistor whose resistance varies significantly with temperature, more so than in standard resistors. The word is a portmanteau of thermal and resistor.
convection, conduction and radiation
What are the means for transferring energy?
The state of two or more objects or substances in thermal contact when they have reached a common temperature
What are the units of heat & thermal energy
Celsius Fahrenheit and kelvin
How does a line graph show when matter changes states
When ice is changing to water there is a rise in temperature when it is ice. When it is ice and water the temperature stays the same and the temperature changes again on the line graph when the matter turns completely to water. When heat energy is added or subtracted from matter either the temperature changes of the phase changes but usually not both at the same time.
What objects have low specific heat?
Steel and pie crust
What objects have high specific heat?
Water and apple pie filling
Why do different materials have specific heat related to their molecular arrangements?
This is because the temperature measures the average kinetic energy per particle. Heavy particles mean fewer particles per kilogram. Energy that is divided between fewer particles means more energy per particle and therefor not temperature change.
How does heat flow by conduction?
Place a cold spoon into hot cocoa. The molecules in the cocoa have a higher average kinetic energy than those of the spoon. The molecules in the spoon exchange energy with the molecule in the cocoa through collisions. The molecules within the spoon itself spread the energy up the stem of the spoon through the inter-molecular forces between them. Heat conduction works both through collision and also through inter-molecular forces between molecules.
How does heat flow by convection?
Bubbles from on the bottom and rise to the top. Hot water near the bottom of the pan circulate up forcing cooler water near the surface to sink. This circulation carries heat through the water. The transfer process is how the heat flows.
How does heat flow by radiation?
This comes from the thermal energy of atoms. The power in thermal radiation increase with higher temperatures because of the thermal energy of atoms increases with the temperature. Because the sun is extremely hot, It's atoms emit lots of thermal radiation. Unlike conduction or convection , thermal radiation can travel through the vacuum of space. All the enrgy that the earth receives from the sun come from this energy type.
How does thermal equilibrium happen?
As collisions continue the molecules of the hotter material lose energy and the molecules of the cooler material gain energy. The kinetic energy of the hotter material is transferred, one collision at a time, to the cooler material. Eventually, both materials are at the same temperature. This occurs when both materials are at the same temperature. No heats flows in exchange because the temperatures are the same.
What is the difference between insulators and conductors?
One conducts heat easily and the other conducts heat poorly.
How do objects omit and absorb radiation?
Thermal radiation is absorbed by objects. An object constantly receives thermal radiation by everything else in its environment. Otherwise all objects would eventually cool down to absolute zero by radiating their energy away. The temperature of an object rises if more radiation is absorbed. The temperature falls if more radiation is emitted. The temperature adjust s until there is a balance between radiation absorbed an emitted.