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Chapter 13: Social Cognition and Moral Development

STUDY
PLAY
social cognition
thinking about the perceptions, thoughts, emotions, motives and behaviors of self and other people
false belief task
understanding that people can hold incorrect beliefs that can influence behavior
theory of mind
people have mental states such as desires, beliefs and intentions and that these mental states guide or cause their behavior
joint attention
point to toys and look for companion to play with - 9 months
pretend play
understanding between pretense and reality - 1 and 2 years
imitation
mentally present actions and goals behind them - 1 year old
emotional standing
comforting a playmate who is crying or teasing a sibling - understanding that other people have emotions that can be influenced as good or bad - 2 years old
desire psychology
HENRY WELLMAN - toddlers talk about what they want and how they behave in terms of desires
belief desire psychology
certain actions will help them fulfill their desires - 4 years old
mirror neurons
neurons that are activated when we perform an action and when we observe someone else perform the same action
mental states
method parents use to positively develop theory of mind - "she thought you were done with your ice cream"
how do children younger then 7 years old describe themselves
physical terms rather then psychological terms
how do children older then age 7 describe themselves
psychological traits, descriptions suggest they can get below the surface
role taking skills
ability to adopt another person's perspective and understand their thoughts and feelings in relation to your own
Selman role taking abilities
develop in stage like manner
1. children age 3 to 6 are largely egocentric (others share same point of view)
2. age 8 to 10 two people can have different views
3. adolescence age 12 capable of mentally juggling multiple perspectives
nonsocial cognitive abilities
remembering readings, testing scientific hypotheses
morality
ability to distinguish right from wrong, to act on this distinction and to experience pride
affective/emotional morality
feelings that surround right or wrong actions and motivate moral thoughts
cognitive morality
how we conceptualize right and wrong and make decisions about how to behave - role taking
behavioral morality
how we behave when we experience the temptation to cheat
moral affect - psychoanalytic
PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY - positive and negative emotions related to matters of right and wrong
empathy
experiencing of another person's feelings
prosocial behavior
positive social acts that reflect a concern for the welfare of others - motived by empathy
moral reasoning - cognitive developmental
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY - thinking process involved in deciding whether an act is right or wrong
reciprocity
mutual give and take by both parties in a human relationship
Premoral period
PIAGET COGNITIVE - preschool years, children show little understanding of rules and cannot be considered moral beings
Heteronomous morality
PIAGET COGNITIVE - age 6 to 10, taking rules seriously, judge rules as wrong based on amount of damage done
Autonomous Morality
PIAGET COGNITIVE - age 10 to 11, appreciate that rules are agreements between individuals and can be changed
Kohlberg's cognitive developmental theory of moral development is comprised of what
3 levels with 2 stages each
Kohlberg level 1
pre conventional morality - rules are external to self
kohlberg level 1 stage 1
punishment and obedience orientation - goodness or badness of act depends on consequence
kohlberg level 1 stage 2
instrumental hedonism - conforms to rules to gain rewards or satisfy personal needs
kohlberg level 2
conventional morality - internalized moral values and strives to obey the rules set by others to win approval
kohlberg level 2 stage 1
good boy or good girl morality - what is right = what pleases, helps or approved by others
kohlberg level 2 stage 2
authority and social order - what is right = what conforms to the rules of legitimate authorities
kohlberg level 3
post conventional morality - defines what is right in terms of broad principles of justice
kohlberg level 3 stage 1
morality of contract, individual rights and law - underlying purposes of laws
kohlberg level 3 stage 2
morality of individual principles of conscience - individual defines right and wrong on the basis of self generated principles that are broad and universal
Moral behavior - social learning theory
behavioral component of morality - what we actually do when faced with temptation
moral behavior is learned through what?
observational learning, reinforcement and punishment principles
moral disengagement
engaging in immoral behavior even though we know the difference between right and wrong in order to feel better about outselves
evolutionary theory
DENNIS KREBS - focuses on what aspects might be universal and how thought, emotion and behavior have helped humans adapt to their environments
amoral
lacking any sense of morality
mutually responsive orientation
GRAZYNA KOCHANSKA - develops between child and caregiver when there is a close, emotionally positive and cooperative relationship in which they are attached
what age does moral socialization begin at?
age 2
heteronomous moral thinkers
young children judge acts as right or wrong on the basis of their consequences
autonomous thinkers
older children judge on the basis of the intentions that guided the act
Elliot Turiel believed young children can distinguish between which 2 different types of rules
1. moral rules: standards that focus on the welfare and basic rights of individuals (hitting, stealing, lying)
2. social conventional rules: standards determined by social consensus that tells us what is appropriate in particular settings
the child's theory of mind skills
help to understand people's emotional reactions to other's actions
goal of moral socialization
to produce an individual who not only has internalized moral rules but also will abide by them
Which theory serves as a model for moral behavior for the parents to raise their child to behave morally and who is it credited to?
Social Learning Theory - Bandura
According to Martin Hoffman, ___?____ is a key motivator of moral behavior
empathy
What are Martin Hoffman's 3 approaches associated with high levels of moral development
1. love withdrawal- withholding attention, affection or approval when child misbehaves
2. power assertion- using power to threaten, taking privileges away, spankings, punishments
3. induction- explaining to the child why what they did is wrong, how it affects others
what is the best approach to foster moral development of children?
induction
what is the "winning formula" for fostering moral development
blend of frequent inductions + occasional power assertions + a lot of affection
what is the main developmental trend in adolescence thought of from Piaget?
shift from pre-conventional to conventional reasoning
two subgroups of antisocial youth
1. recognizable in childhood and persistently antisocial across life span
2. larger group that behaves antisocially mainly during adolescence in response to peer pressures and outgrows this behavior in adulthood
who analyzed contributors to aggressive behavior?
Kenneth Dodge
individuals who are provoked progress through these steps
1. encoding cues - process information
2. interpretation of cues - make sense of info
3. clarification of goals - what to achieve
4. response search - actions to achieve goal
5. response decision - pros and cons of actions
6. behavioral enactment - doing something
coercive family environments
GERALD PATTERSON - which family members are locked in power struggles, each trying to control the others through negative tactics
gene environment interaction
children with certain genetic predispositions may become antisocial only if they grow up in a dysfunctional family and receive poor parenting
gene environment correlation
children who inherit a genetic predisposition to become aggressive may evoke the coercive parenting
advancing moral growth
advanced schooling, family and social peers, participating in a complex moral society (democracy)
biopsychosocial model of aggression
KENNETH DODGE and GREGORY PETTIT - biological factors and sociocultural factors put certain children at risk for violence
spirituality
a search for ultimate meaning in life that may be carried out within or outside the context of religion
masculine morality of justice
focused on laws, rules, individual rights and fairness
feminine morality of care
an obligation to be selfless and look after the welfare of other people