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44 terms

Microbiology

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3 Steps to Infection
Invasion, Multiplication, Reaction
elective localization site
area in which the organism perfers to attach
infection
when a microrganism or a certain living agent enters the body of a human or an animal, multiplies and causes a reaction
contamination
the mere presence of infectious material; the act of introducing disease, germs, or infectious material into an area or substance
2 types of organisms
True Pathogen and Opportunist
true pathogen
real or genuwine disease producing organism (sets out to cause you harm)
opportunist
an organism that exist as part of the normal flora but may become pathogenic under certain conditions
pathogenicity
the ability of a pathogen to overcome the defensive powers of the host and to induce disease
virulence
the degree of pathogenicity possessed by the organism to produce disease;the degree of intensity of the disease produced
attenuated
a loss in disease producing ability;an organism whose virulence is decreased
Primary infection
an original infection from which a second infection can occur
secondary infection
an infection caused by a different organism then the one causing the primary infection
mixed infection
an infection caused by 2 or more organisms
local infection
an infection confined to 1 anatomical position
focal infection
an infection confined to 1 anatomical spot from which infectious material spread to other parts of the body
general infection
an infection that becomes systemic
acute infection
an infection that runs a rapaid course with severe manifestations (between 12-48 hours)
chronic infection
long lasting infection with less severe manifestations (48 hours and beyond)
ENdogenous infection
an infection that comes from an organism that is normally present in the body (aka opportunist)
EXOgenous infection
an infection in which the causitive agent reaches the body from the outside and enters through one of the portals of entry
non-communicable
one whose agent is normally inhabiting the body and only occassionaly producing disease. or resides outside the body producing disease only when introduced into the body)
communicable
one whose agent is directly or indirectly transmitted from host to host
incidence
number of new cases per block of population in a specific time
prevalence
number of cases in existance at any given time in that population
sporadic
an occasional case in a community or in a scatter of instances
endemic
a disease that occurs continously in a particular region but has a low mortality rate
epidemic
an appearence of infectious disease or condition that attacks many people at the same time in the same geographical area
pandemic
an infectious disease affecting the majority of a population of a large region, or onethat is an epidemic at the same time in many parts of the world
Septicemia
when bacteria enters the blood stream, multiply, causing an infection of the blood stream itself
bacteremia
when bacteria enter the blood stream and do NOT multiply; or the presence of a viable (living, thriving) in the blood stream.
toxemia
when bacteria distribute toxins, and the toxins enter the blood stream causing an infection
factors that influence the virulence of a microbe
has a capsule, pili, spores, toxin producer, enzyme producer
2 types of toxin prodcers
exotoxin and endotoxin
exotoxin
toxin produced by a bacterial cell released into its environment when the bacterial cell is alive
endotoxin
toxin produced by a bacterail cell when it dies or disinergrates
2 types of an exotoxin
hemolysin and leucocidin
hemolysin
toxin released by the bacterial cell hat will lysis or destroy red blood cells
leucocidin
a toxin that will lysis or destroy white blood cells
sources of infection in communicable diseases
active carrier, passive carrier, and human carrier
active carrier
an animal or human that has an infection you could see and/or identify the symptoms
passive carrier
an animal or human that has NO infection but the pathogen is in or on the carrier with no interaction
human carrier
a human that has the infection but is A-Systemic (not presenting)
infections cannot live in a lifeless environmen
sources of infection in a communicable disease
there must be a resvivor for the infection
sources of infection in a communicable disease