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Linguistics Ch 4
Terms in this set (36)
The branch of linguistics that studies the meaning of words (morphemes).
the circumstances under which a sentence is true
pragmatics of language
study of how context affects meaning
the meanings of words and the meaning relationships among words.
concerned with phrasal meanings and how phrasal meanings are assembled
whether a statement is true or false
statements that are always true regardless of circumstance
a statement that is the opposite of another statement - false statements
if you know a whole sentence is true, you know a part of that sentence is also true
a single phrase or sentence has two (or more) different Phrase trees
when a word can have more than one meaning
Principles of Compositionality
meaning of an expression is made up of the meaning of it's parts and how they are structurally combined
the part of a sentence with a verb and stating something about the subject . (verbs, adjectives, nouns)
Semantic rule #1
If the meaning of NP (a person) is a member of the meaning of the VP(a set of individuals) then the phrase is true
Semantic rule #2
the set of individuals X, such that X is the first member of any pair in the meaning of V, whose second member is the meaning of NP.
Describes an utterance whose meaning cannot be determined because of nonsense words: e.g., All mimsy were the borogoves.
when individual words have meaning but meaning can't be determined from the phrase because of syntax and semantic mistakes
a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or action to which it is not literally applicable.
An expression that has a meaning apart from the meanings of its individual words
phrases that mean more than the sum of their literal parts; such phrases can be difficult for nonnative speakers to understand
a statement that seems contradictory but is actually true (If Dick Clark drops the ball, he really dropped the ball.)
thing that a symbol represents (link between the word Jack and the person named Jack)
more than reference alone. needs sense also
sometimes corresponds to a mental image
word that sounds like another but differs in meaning and spelling
having multiple meanings
Describes the relationship between words in a category and a specific item from that category. banana to fruit.
alive / dead awake / asleep
Antonyms, such as big/little, that are part of a larger set of related words and express the concept that one of them is more, whereas the other is less.
A pair of antonyms in which one describes a relationship between two objects and the other describes the same relationship when the two objects are reversed: e.g., parent/child, teacher/pupil; John is the parent of Susie describes the same relationship as Susie is the child of John.
Names for things which can be counted. Have a plural form. e.g. 'teabag', 'girl', 'child'
Nouns that cannot ordinarily be enumerated: e.g., milk, water; *two milks is ungrammatical except when interpreted to mean 'two kinds of milk,' 'two containers of milk,' and so on.
negative polarity items
expressions that require a negative element such as "not" elsewhere in the sentence
describe states (knows of)
a verb with three participants. In English, the third participant (the indirect object) is usually introduced by a preposition
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