Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Exam 1 Genetics
Terms in this set (50)
What is genetics?
the study of heredity and the variation of inherited characteristics.
What are the three major sub-disciplines in genetics?
Transmission, molecular, and population
Transmission genetics is the study of?
Genetic information transfer between generations- parent to offspring (EX. hair color).
Molecular genetics is the study of?
The structure, function, and activity of genes at a molecular level. (EX. how genetic info is encoded, replicated, and expressed)
- DNA Replication
- Transcription (mRNA)
- Translation (mRNA- Protein)
Which organism would be the worst organism to study?
Humans (not humane)
Over 1200 years humans bred plants and animals with beneficial traits like bigger/sweeter plants and friendlier livestock. This process is now called:
Domestication by artificial selection.
What is a genome?
The complete genetic makeup of any organism.
Generally chromosomes of eukaryotes are circular: T or F
False; prokaryotes generally have chromosomes that are circular.
The attachment point on a chromosome for spindle mircrotubules is the:
What does not occur during the G2 phase of the cell cycle?
Cell division. G2 is where the cells are prepped to make sure they are ready to move into the mphase.
Two sources of genetic variation in meiosis are:
Independent assortment and crossing over.
Which of the following is not a part of a single nucleotide?
____________ is a change in allele frequency of a population over time.
Permanent, heritable changes in genetic information (DNA) are called:
Mutations/ SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism)
- This is available to be passed on through generations.
THINK ABOUT: Albinism among the Hopi Native Americans.
The process of splitting the cytoplasm, which separates one cell into two, is termed:
Within cells, genes are located on structures called:
Suppose that a diploid cell contains 8 chromosomes (2n=8). How many different combinations in the gametes are possible due to random/independent assortment during meiosis?
Prokaryotic chromosomes do not have telomeres because they are:
Which correctly shows the flow of genetic information during gene expression?
Diploid cells are cells with:
To sets of chromosomes.
What serves as the BEST model for understanding basic mechanisms of inheritance?
Fruit Flies; They are able to produce mutations at a faster rate and have a short gestation.
What is not a prokaryote cell?
Viruses; all prokaryote cells are bacteria
In prokaryotes, replication usually begins at a specific place on the chromosome called the:
Origin of replication (where it starts)
The attachment point on the chromosome for spindle microtubules is the:
If healthy cells pass the G1/S checkpoint:
DNA will be replicated
Chromosome movement during anaphase is a result of:
Disassembly of tubulin molecules by molecular motor proteins.
A dividing eukaryotic cell is treated with a drug that inhibits the molecular motors associated with kinetochores. At which cell cycle stage would it stop?
What process is unique to plants?
A diploid somatic cell from a rat has a total of 42 chromosomes (2n=42). As in humans, sex chromosomes determine sex: XX in females and XY in males. What is the total number of telomeres in a rat cell in G2?
If a healthy cell passes the G1/S checkpoint
DNA will be replicated in the sphase
What does NOT occur before or during the G2 phase of the cell cycle?
The cell divides (mphase)
In eukaryotes, chromosomes do not contain what?
Which of the following pairings between the subdiscipline of genetics and the phenomenon is incorrect?
Chemical nature of the gene- Transmission genetics (It really should be molecular genetics)
Physical expression of a gene; a trait such as hair color.
An alternate form of a gene. (EX. AA puple crossed with bb white some alleles created will be homozygus dominant, heterozygous, or homozygous) Use a punnet square to calculate.
Two alleles that code for the same trait
Like chromosomes (the same)
Site of a gene on a chromosome
Gene and Allele:
Gene: A section of DNA that codes for a specific trait.
Allele: Alternate form of a gene that codes for the same trait.
Genotype and Phenotype:
Genotype: Genetic expression of a gene
Phenotype: Physical expression of a gene; a visual trait.
DNA and Chromosome
DNA: All genetic information in a cell
Chromosome: Holds sections of DNA (gene)
Mitosis makes what cells?
Somatic Cells; body cells such as skin, liver, ect.
Meiosis makes what cells?
Reproductive Cells; gamete cells such as sperm and egg.
What does interphase do?
It duplicates chromosomes before cells begin in mitosis and meiosis.
How many chromosomes do humans have?
46; 23 from each parent
How do chromosomes migrate to opposite poles in anaphase?
Each microtubule of spindle is made up of proteins called tubulin and each side has a polarity (+,-). Kinetochores are the motor that pulls them apart.
What is the difference between nucleotides and chromosomes?
Nucleotides have base pairs in DNA: AGCT (adenine, guanine, cytocine, and thymine) A pairs with T and C pairs with G. They contain the genetic makeup of the cell. Chromosomes are the organized structure that condenses down the DNA.
What are the two sexual reproduction processes?
1. Meiosis (1n to 1n)
2. Fertilization (Two 1n cells come together creating diploid 2n cell).
What 3 steps must every cell go through for success of reproduction?
1. Genetic info must be copied.
2. Copies of this info must be separated.
3. Cell must divide!
What do proteins express?
The trait and genes carry it on.
Recommended textbook explanations
Miller and Levine Biology
Joseph S. Levine, Kenneth R. Miller
Fundamentals of Biochemistry: Life at the Molecular Level
Charlotte W. Pratt, Donald Voet, Judith G. Voet
Campbell Biology (AP Edition)
Cain, Campbell, Minorsky, Reece, Urry, Wasserman
Biocalculus: Calculus for the Life Sciences
Sets with similar terms
Biology Ch. 8 - Basic Genetics
Bio 110 exam 2
Science Final: Test 3
Other sets by this creator
Genetics Exam 2
History of Rangeland
Rangeland Week 1 Quiz Questions
Other Quizlet sets
Mythology Pt. 2 SG
Steel Magnolias memorization test - 3
Fluency for Praxis/Midterm
Weeks 5&6: Microbial Nutrition & Metabolism