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____ ____ diminish the effects of epinephrine (adrenaline) and other stress hormones.
Beta blockers block the action of endogenous _______ (epinephrine and norepinephrine), on β-adrenergic receptors.
____ ____ receptors are located mainly in the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, liver, uterus, vascular smooth muscle, and skeletal muscle.
Calcium channel blockers (CCBs):
____ ____ ____ are a class of drugs and natural substances that disrupt the movement of calcium through calcium channels.
The most widespread clinical usage of _______ is to decrease blood pressure in patients with hypertension.
_______ frequently are used to control heart rate, prevent cerebral vasospasm, and reduce chest pain due to angina pectoris.
_____ ______ are a group of drugs used primarily for the treatment of hypertension (high blood pressure) and congestive heart failure.
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors:
___ ___ ___ ___ or Statins are a class of drug used to lower cholesterol levels by inhibiting the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase, which plays a central role in the production of cholesterol in the liver.
Stimulation of the Alpha 1 receptor causes vasoconstriction resulting in a increase in ____ ____.
____ is the discharge or escape, as of blood, from a vessel into the tissues; blood or other substance so discharged.
When B1 receptors are ____ the rate, contractility, and conduction of the heart are increased.
Vasodilation of the Beta 1 receptor ____ the rate, contractility and conduction of the heart.
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