22 terms

CS 3A Enlightenment

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enlightenment
movement during the 1700's that spread the idea that knowledge, reason, and science could improve society
philosophes
thinkers or philosophers of the Enlightenment
salons
informal social gatherings at which writers, artists, philosophes, and other exchanged enlightenment ideas
encyclopedia
the first publication of different essays about the culture and society of France which was ebentually banned because it dealt with controversial issues
Hobbes
Government is necessary to protect the people. You must give up rights to be protected. Wrote the Leviathan
Leviathan
Book written by Thomas Hobbes insisting on the need for absolute rule
Locke
Believed in life, liberty, and property - people make a deal with the government in return for protection
Montesquieu
the Enlighenment writer who believed in seperation of powers
Voltaire
French writer who was the embodiment of 18th century Enlightenment (1694-1778)
Rousseau
believed people in their natural state were basically good but that they were corrupted by the evils of society
Copernicus
Developed the first modern theory of a sun-centered universe
Galileo
Publicized Copernicus's findings; used the telescope to study moon and planets; condemned by the Catholic church for his work.
Kepler
This astronomer stated that the orbits of planets around the sun were elliptical
baroque
elaborate an extensive ornamentation in decorative art and architecture that flourished in Europe in the 17th century
neoclassical
Light and elegant art and architecture inspired by Ancient Greece and Rome. This style reflected Enlightenment ideas
geocentric theory
Arrangment of the solar system that places the Earth at the center with the sun and planets orbiting the Earth
heliocentric theory
the idea that the earth and the other planets revolve around the sun
Diderot
Published work of many philosphes in his Encyclopedia. He hoped it would help people think more rationally and critically
Inquisition
A Roman Catholic tribunal for investigating and prosecuting charges of heresy
revolution
a drastic and far-reaching change in ways of thinking and behaving
enlightened despot
System of government in which an absolute ruler rules according to the principles of Enlightenment
social contract
the notion that society is based on an agreement between government and the governed in which people agree to give up some rights in exchange for the protection of others