the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation.
an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind.
a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function--how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish.
application of psychological findings to practical situations and the function of mental operations in adapting to the environment
the study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method.
the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).
historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growth.
the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language).
the science of behavior and mental processes.
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today's science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture.
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
Levels of Analysis
the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon.
an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis.
a branch of psychology that studies the links between biological (including neuroscience and behavior genetics) and psychological processes.
the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection.
a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders.
the scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning.
the scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking.
the scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits.
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.
the scientific study of physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span.
the study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning.
the study of an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
the scientific study if how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems.
Industrial-Organized (I/O) Psychology
the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces.
Human Factors Pyschology
the study of how people and machines interact and the design of safe and easily used machines and environments.
a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being.
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders.
a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who often provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy.
a study method incorporating five steps: Survery, Question, Read, Rehearse, Review.