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Philosophy Test #1
Terms in this set (48)
what is the origin of the word philosophy?
comes from Greek, literal meaning "love of wisdom", philo=love and Sophia=wisdom
what are the 4 activities of philosophy?
Wondering (asking fundamental questions), Critical thinking (answering those questions), forming a worldview, living that worldview
what are 3 of the best tools to answer fundamental questions?
definitions, arguments, and awareness of fallacies
arguments that are psychologically persuasive but logically weak
what are 2 processes that are powerful tools for thinking?
socratic dialogue and thought experiments
what is metaphysics?
what is real
what is epistemology?
how do we come to know?
what is ethics?
what is a good life/right and wrong?
what does social and political philosophy study?
what a good society is
what is the system for philosophy for life?
reflection, living the philosophy, reflection, adapt the philosophy, philosophical dialogue
what are some things that matter beyond how we feel on the inside?
Relationships, character, achievement, personal growth
reasons to connect to the experiment machine
willing to take more risks, don't have to experience bad things
reasons to not connect to the experiment machine
almost like a dream, hard to grow when everything is good, takes away the journey of life
what is the socratic method/dialect and what is it compared to?
the function of education is to draw the truth out of the pupil, rather than fill the empty vessel
compared to a midwife helping to give mother birth but not actually giving birth herself
name the 4 archetypal individuals
Jesus, Socrates, Buddha, Confucius
what is the dialectical process?
the goal is not to find the answer but to become clearer than before
literal level of meaning and hidden level of meaning, keeps pupils listening and on their toes
confuses those who are inattentive, they don't understand the hidden meaning
what is the contradiction that Thrasymachus and Socrates come to?
Thrasymachus says that justice is "what's in the interest of the stronger party", Socrates then argues that since the stronger party is fallible this leads to a contradiction where one should and should not do what the stronger party thinks is in their interest. ex. teaching example
ad hominem fallacy
attacking the person
false dillema fallacy
argument in which a speaker reduces available choices to only two even though other alternatives exist
In Haidt's story what is the rider?
In Haidt's story what is the elephant?
Rider is to elephant as ___________ is to ____________
thinking that the reason for something is one specific reason rather than a combination of things on a spectrum
where do we go when we die according to Epicurus?
since we are made of atoms, we dissolve back into the universe
what is pleasure according to Epicurus?
the absence of pain in the body and trouble in the soul
what are the gods role in life according to Epicurus?
they exist but they show no interest in human affairs
which of Epicurus' idea/technique did Havi use to cope with her illness?
focus on the present
which claim of Epicurus did Havi have trouble believing?
what is painful is easy to endure
constantly seeking new things for the pleasure you're convinced they'll bring but repeatedly finding yourself back where you began
when you're so absorbed in what you're doing that you have no awareness of anything around you
the best way to get pleasure is by not trying to
Hurka's 4 types of pleasure
localized pleasure: eating chocolate, things that are easy to attain
localized pleasures that...: going to movies, seeing your dog, flow states, achievement
generalized pleasures: good mood, lasts longer, not always easy to get
generalized pleasures that...: life satisfaction, spread out over time
it takes more good to overcome something bad because response to threats & unpleasantness are faster, stronger, and harder to inhibit
a person's average or typical level of happiness
3 ways to change your affective style
1. meditation: helps with stress and builds patience
2. cognitive therapy: active training for your mind
3. Prozac: controversial due to side effects
a constant scale in our unconscious giving an involuntary response to everything we encounter
if we are shown something we dislike, it then takes time for our meter to shift back to good when we see something we like, even if we did not consciously interpret what was shown first
our general affective style influenced by genetics. genetics counts for 50% of our happiness. most people show more activity in either the right or left frontal cortex. Lefties: happier, less prone to depression Righties: anxious, overactive withdrawal system
what is Socrates view on the unexamined life?
there is no purpose to an unexamined life. examined life leads to awareness of the human condition, not spending life trying to simplify desires
2 ways that Socrates is wiser than most
he didn't think he new more then he actually did and he knew human knowledge was limited
excellence of function
who was called physician of the soul and why?
a name that Socrates called himself. we are our souls, not our bodies. virtue, truth, wisdom and care of the soul are more important than money and reputation
knowledge of what to do and how to do it
behavior is always controlled by beliefs about what is good and the means to that good
what is happiness to Safu Anil?
not an extreme high or low, but somewhere in the middle
what was Socrates charged with?
not worshiping the gods of state and corrupting the youth
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