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Tendency to view everything in relationship to oneself.


Thinking about thinking in order to make thinking better.

Critical thinking

Critical thinking involves __________ one's own thinking.

"analyzing, evaluating, and improving"

Not a bad habit of thought.

Reasoning from assumptions that are not one's own.

"In thinking through a problem, the critical thinker does NOT "

gather information that supports his/her presuppositions

Another term for critical thinking

Second-order thinking

Hiding or distorting evidence is a tendency of what kind of thinking?

Weak-sense thinking

"In the classroom, critical thinking shifts the premium from ______ of thought to ________of thought. "

speed / depth

Bringing an unbiased perspective to all relevant viewpoints exemplifies which of the following?


The ability to reconstruct others' viewpoints exemplifies this.

intellectual empathy

To admit flaws in one's own thinking is an expression of what?

intellectual humility

The opposite of intellectual conformity is...

intellectual autonomy

Represents the second stage of critical thinking development

Challenged Thinker

Evaluates the extent to which life's events are either positive or negative


"All reasoning has a purpose, seeks to settle some question, is based on assumptions, occurs from some point of view, is based on information, is shaped by concepts, contains inferences by and gives meaning to information, and has implications and conseque "

Guidelines for using Intellectual Standards

Being near to the true value or meaning of something


What logically follows from reasoning


A logical process of drawing conclusions


Being unambiguous and easily understood


General categories or ideas by which we interpret or classify information used in our thinking


The goal or objective of reasoning


Unstated or hidden beliefs that support our explicit reasoning


The elements of reasoning are also known as the...

parts of thinking and fundamental structures of thought

Occurs whenever the mind draws conclusions based on reasons.


Which elements of reasoning are operative when we think through a problem?

All eight elements of reasoning

Goal or desired outcome of our reasoning.


We take for granted as true in our reasoning.


What follows from our reasoning?


Examples of concepts


"In reasoning, we make __________ based on __________. "

inferences / assumptions

Distinctions between the elements of reasoning.


Memorizing information without understanding.

Inert information

Mentally taking in and actively using false information

Activated ignorance

Three kinds of implications that may be involved in any situation.

"Possible, probable, and necessary"

Thinking that is easily understood reflects which intellectual standard?


"Reasoning that is specific, exact and sufficiently detailed. "


A question with one correct answer.

Question of fact

A question with many possible subjective answers.

Question of preference

A question with competing and debatable answers.

Question of judgment

"In analyzing causation, looking for a single shared factor. "

Common factor method

"In analyzing causation, looking for a causal factor that is present in one situation but absent in another, similar situation "

Single difference method

"In analyzing causation, looking for a pattern of variation between a possible cause and a possible effect "

Concomittant variation

"In analyzing causation, successively ruling out non-causal factors until one correct causal factor remains "

Process of elimination

"A systemic, disciplined approach to asking questions aimed at assessing truth "

Socratic questioning

"These questions have more than one answer, with some answers better than others. "

Questions of judgment

Do you like watching ice hockey or basketball?

Question of preference

Questions that have only one answer.

Questions of fact

Paul and Elder counsel that you take problems and decisions ...

"One-by-one, not merging them together"

"In analyzing causation, looking for a causal factor that is present in one situation,but absent in another, similar situation is called the... "

single difference method

A scientist discovered that all laboratory hamsters that had been eating lettuce developed Salmonella poisoning. This is an example of causation by:

common factor

A mechanic ruled out failures in 10 different engine parts before finding the problem in the carburator. This is an example of

process of elimination

"In strategic thinking, recognizing when your thinking is irrational or flawed is which component? "


"In strategic thinking, engaging and challenging your own thinking is which component? "

Intellectual action

"To analyze the logic of an article, one can apply.. "

elements of reasoning

Reasoning can only be as sound as the _______ it is based on.


"Actively using information that is false, although we mistakenly think it is true is an example of... "

Activated ignorance

A common problem with applying the critical thinking standard of clarity to information is...

the information isn't clear

The implicit believe that support our explicit reasoning about something.


Critical thinking experts call an unsupported claim...

an opinion

Key factor in tracing the origins of information.


"Paul ad Elder argue that ________, not Uncritical Persons, know how to manipulate "

Skilled Manipulators

Citing majority sentiment or popular opinion as the reason for supporting a claim

appeal to popularity

Dismissing an argument by attacking the person who offers it rather than by refuting its reasoning

ad hominem fallacy

Plausible alternative explanation for why something happened.

Rival cause

"Understanding, monitoring, employing, developing, and embracing "

Characteristics of an Advanced Thinker

the belief that one's own thinking or life is superior to others.


The belief thta one's own society or group is superior to others.


principles for correct human behavior acknowledged by reasonable people.

Universal ethical standards

Remembering only that evidence and information that supports our thinking.

Egocentric memory

"Overgeneralizing so that immediate event, whether favorable or unfavorable, influence thinking. "

Egocentric immediacy

"Feeling superior because of possessing the ""Truth"" "

Egocentric righteousness

Ignoring inconsistencies between belief and behavior and between public standards and private actions

Egocentric hypocrisy

Adopting an overly narrow point of view and thinking in absolutes

Egocentric myopia

An effective approach to correcting egocentric myopia.

consider points of views that conflict with ours

Another term for egocentric thinking.

rigidity of thought

An example of the logic of egocentric thinking applied to point of view.

"I don't really care what anyone thinks, I deserve to be rewarded and that's the way it is."

"Ignoring complexity and embracing a version of reality that conforms to our existing views, values, and beliefs. "

Egocentric oversimplification

Paul and Elder argue that we ...

pick and choose our ethical principles subjectively.

Paul and Elder believe that ethical principles common to all humans can be found here.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Advanced thinkers are unlikely to make decisions by...


Involves developing the tools of critical thinking and applying them to current and future challenges.

Deep learning

Doesn't produce lasting knowledge or comprehension.

Shallow learning

When is the optimal time for a learner to apply the Elements of Reasoning to the logic of a subject?

Before the learner has begun his /her course of study

"Higher order thinking does NOT contribute to the gap, if anything it would act to narrow it. "


"The science of collecting, organizing, and analyzing quantitative data "


The average derived by adding up all the values and dividing the sum by the total number of values


The average represented by the middle value in a series of values


A graph that plots the relationship between 2 or more variables by using connected data points

Line graph

"The total or aggregate of something, expressed as a number without relationship to other numbers "

Absolute number

Incorrect or erroneous information


A study sample that is representative of the whole population

Random sample

The value that appears most frequently in a series of values


The gap between the smallest and largest values in a series of values

Statistical range

The frequency with which each value in a series of values occurs

Statistical distribution

Which of the following graphical forms is well suited to summarizing tiem series data?

Line graph

It is impossible to interpret the significance of a percentage without knowing the ________ on which it is based.

Absolute numbers

Which report of resk reduction conveys a more significant treatment effect?


Purposes; questions; assumptions' implications' information; concepts; inferences; points of view

Element of critical thinking

Reasoning always takes place within this

Point of view

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