"In thinking through a problem, the critical thinker does NOT "
gather information that supports his/her presuppositions
"In the classroom, critical thinking shifts the premium from ______ of thought to ________of thought. "
speed / depth
Bringing an unbiased perspective to all relevant viewpoints exemplifies which of the following?
"All reasoning has a purpose, seeks to settle some question, is based on assumptions, occurs from some point of view, is based on information, is shaped by concepts, contains inferences by and gives meaning to information, and has implications and conseque "
Guidelines for using Intellectual Standards
General categories or ideas by which we interpret or classify information used in our thinking
The elements of reasoning are also known as the...
parts of thinking and fundamental structures of thought
Which elements of reasoning are operative when we think through a problem?
All eight elements of reasoning
Three kinds of implications that may be involved in any situation.
"Possible, probable, and necessary"
"In analyzing causation, looking for a causal factor that is present in one situation but absent in another, similar situation "
Single difference method
"In analyzing causation, looking for a pattern of variation between a possible cause and a possible effect "
"In analyzing causation, successively ruling out non-causal factors until one correct causal factor remains "
Process of elimination
"A systemic, disciplined approach to asking questions aimed at assessing truth "
"These questions have more than one answer, with some answers better than others. "
Questions of judgment
Paul and Elder counsel that you take problems and decisions ...
"One-by-one, not merging them together"
"In analyzing causation, looking for a causal factor that is present in one situation,but absent in another, similar situation is called the... "
single difference method
A scientist discovered that all laboratory hamsters that had been eating lettuce developed Salmonella poisoning. This is an example of causation by:
A mechanic ruled out failures in 10 different engine parts before finding the problem in the carburator. This is an example of
process of elimination
"In strategic thinking, recognizing when your thinking is irrational or flawed is which component? "
"In strategic thinking, engaging and challenging your own thinking is which component? "
"Actively using information that is false, although we mistakenly think it is true is an example of... "
A common problem with applying the critical thinking standard of clarity to information is...
the information isn't clear
"Paul ad Elder argue that ________, not Uncritical Persons, know how to manipulate "
Citing majority sentiment or popular opinion as the reason for supporting a claim
appeal to popularity
Dismissing an argument by attacking the person who offers it rather than by refuting its reasoning
ad hominem fallacy
"Understanding, monitoring, employing, developing, and embracing "
Characteristics of an Advanced Thinker
principles for correct human behavior acknowledged by reasonable people.
Universal ethical standards
"Overgeneralizing so that immediate event, whether favorable or unfavorable, influence thinking. "
Ignoring inconsistencies between belief and behavior and between public standards and private actions
An effective approach to correcting egocentric myopia.
consider points of views that conflict with ours
An example of the logic of egocentric thinking applied to point of view.
"I don't really care what anyone thinks, I deserve to be rewarded and that's the way it is."
"Ignoring complexity and embracing a version of reality that conforms to our existing views, values, and beliefs. "
Paul and Elder believe that ethical principles common to all humans can be found here.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Involves developing the tools of critical thinking and applying them to current and future challenges.
When is the optimal time for a learner to apply the Elements of Reasoning to the logic of a subject?
Before the learner has begun his /her course of study
"Higher order thinking does NOT contribute to the gap, if anything it would act to narrow it. "
The average derived by adding up all the values and dividing the sum by the total number of values
A graph that plots the relationship between 2 or more variables by using connected data points
"The total or aggregate of something, expressed as a number without relationship to other numbers "
It is impossible to interpret the significance of a percentage without knowing the ________ on which it is based.
Purposes; questions; assumptions' implications' information; concepts; inferences; points of view
Element of critical thinking