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Government Chapter One Test
Terms in this set (43)
What is the definition of government?
The institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policies
EXPLANATION: A government is made up of the people who have the authority to organize and run a society.
A unitary government is defined based on what type of classification?
Geographic distribution of power
EXPLANATION: In a unitary government, all powers held by the government belong to a single, central agency, which concentrates power in a single geographic location.
What is a mixed economy?
Private enterprise exists in combination with a considerable amount of government regulation.
EXPLANATION: Free enterprise is encouraged, but the government is closely involved in promoting and regulating the economy as well.
What are the basic powers that every government holds?
Legislative, executive, and judicial powers
EXPLANATION: Every government has and exercises the power to make laws, the power to enforce laws, and the power to interpret laws.
Which of the following is an example of an oligarchy?
An authoritarian regime such as that of the Soviet Union
EXPLANATION: An oligarchy is a government in which the power to rule is held by a small, usually self-appointed elite. The Soviet Union was run by members of its communist party.
Why does the free enterprise economic system work well with a democratic political system?
Both are based on the idea of individual freedom and reinforce each other in practice.
EXPLANATION: Free enterprise relies on the participation of individuals who are free to choose their economic pursuits. Democracy also relies on the voluntary participation of free people.
What is the main difference between the executive of a presidential government and the executive of a parliamentary government?
A president is elected by the people, whereas a prime minister is appointed by the parliament.
EXPLANATION: In a presidential government, the executive is separate from the legislature. In a parliamentary government, the prime minister is part of the legislature and leads only as long as his or her party holds the majority.
Which of the following is an example of a government classified by its relationship between legislative and executive branches?
EXPLANATION: A presidential government is defined primarily by the separation of powers and the checks and balances between the branches of government.
A government in which the powers of government are divided between a central government and several local governments is called a __________ government.
EXPLANATION: In a federal government, the division of powers between the central and local governments is made on a geographic basis.
Why is the belief in the equality of all persons essential to democracy?
All people in a democracy must be entitled to equality of opportunity and equality before the law.
EXPLANATION: Without equality of opportunity and equality before the law, a democracy could not be very effective.
How did the social contract theory influence the formation of the government of the United States?
Its important ideas of popular sovereignty, limited government, and individual rights strongly shaped the thinking of those who established American governmental system.
EXPLANATION: Philosophers rejected the idea of the divine right of kings and instead embraced the idea of a government subject to the will of the governed.
Which form of government does not exist at the national level anywhere in the world today?
EXPLANATION: Direct democracy depends on the direct participation of the people themselves, who would make public policy in mass meetings. Such meetings would be impossible with the vast populations of modern nations.
Who holds the supreme authority in a dictatorship?
A single person or small group of people
EXPLANATION: In a dictatorship, the ruler or rulers have absolute power and are not held responsible to the will of the people.
What does the law of supply and demand state?
When supplies of goods and services become plentiful, prices tend to drop. When supplies become scarcer, prices tend to rise.
EXPLANATION: In a free enterprise system, the market forces of supply and demand determine what goods and services are produced and how much they cost.
More and more voters get information from the Internet to inform themselves about important issues and help them decide how to vote. What is a drawback to this development?
Information found on the Internet can be false, difficult to verify, or biased.
EXPLANATION: Though the instant availability of vast amounts of information makes participation in the democratic process easier than ever before, those who use the Internet should always evaluate online information for its accuracy and usefulness.
Which of the following theories expresses the belief that the state developed naturally out of family and tribal organizations?
EXPLANATION: This theory states that small groups of people banded together gradually until a government formed naturally out of a need to serve the common good.
Which of the following is NOT one the four defining characteristics of all states?
EXPLANATION: Not all states grant freedoms to individuals.
Why is it sometimes difficult to honor an individual's rights and freedoms within a free society?
Sometimes a person exercising his or her personal rights or freedoms imposes on the rights and freedoms of others within the society.
EXPLANATION: A free society must strike a proper balance between the rights of an individual and those of another individual, as well as between the rights of the individual and those of society as a whole.
Which of the following is NOT one of the purposes of the U.S. government stated in the Preamble to the U.S. Constitution?
To make the United States the most powerful country in the world
EXPLANATION: The Preamble emphasizes liberty, justice, and other ideals of democracy, not international power.
The democratic government of the United States would fall apart without the...
American people's belief in the basic concepts of democracy.
EXPLANATION: For democracy to work, the people must believe in the ideas of individual worth, equality, majority rule, compromise, and individual freedom.
congress and senate: make laws and frame public policy
president and extended cabinet
interprets laws, determine their meaning, and settled disputes about the laws
laws outlined in a body of fundamental laws
a state must have people, the number of which does not directly relate to its existence
a state must be comprised of land with known and recognized boundaries
has supreme and absolute power within its own territory and decides its own foreign and domestic policies
states one person or small group took control of area and force all to rule
state evolved naturally out of the early family
divine right theory
holds that god created the state and god gives those of royal birth a divine right to rule
social contract theory
state arouse out of voluntary act of free people
governments can be classified in three basic ways
who can participate in government process
the geographic distribution of power
and the relationship between the legislature and executive branches
small group of persons chosen by the people to act as their representatives
a government in which a single person holds unlimited political power
all powers held by a single central agency
the powers of government divided by a central government and local governments
alliance of independent states
voters elect the legislature chief executive. both are independent and coequal
voters elect legislature chief executive is drawn from there
four fundamental factors of democracy
foundations of democracy
worth of the individual, equality of all persons, majority rule minority rights, necessity of compromise, individual freedom
american economic system is called
free enterprise system
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