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42 terms

Practical 4

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To supply the body with oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide
Major role of the respiratory system
pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, transport of gasses, internal respiration
Four processes of respiration
pulmonary ventilation
The tidelike movements of air into and out of the lungs so that the gases in the alveoli are continuously changed and refreshed. Also more simply called ventilation or breathing.
external respiration
The gas exchange between the blood and the air-filled chambers of the lungs (oxygen loading/ carbon dioxide unloading)
Transport of respiratory gases
The transport of gases between the lungs and tissue cells of the body accomplished by the cardiovascular system, using blood as the transport vehicle.
internal respiration
Exchange of gases between systemic blood and tissue cells (oxygen unloading/ carbon dioxide loading)
inferior, superior and middle
name the three pair of nasal conchae
epiglottis
'guardian of the airways'
digestive
the system that consists of a hollow tube extending from mouth to anus
peristalsis
involuntary waves of muscle contraction that keep food moving along in one direction through the digestive system
rugae of mucosa
folds of the stomach
gallbladder
stores bile
thyroid and cricoid
two most prominent cartilage of the larynx
trachea
windpipe
alveoli
tiny balloon like expansions along the alveolar sacs and occassionally found protruding from alveolar ducts and respiratory bronchioles
inspiration and expiration
breathing consists of two phases
tidal volume
amount of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath under resting conditions
inspiratory reserve volme
amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume inhalation
residual volume
the amount of air that remains in the lungs after a maximal expiratory effort
medulla and pons
where are the neural control center of respiratory rhythm?
inc thoracic vol, decr pressure
under what internal conditions does air tend to flow into the lungs?
decr thoracic vol, inc pressure
under what internal conditions does air tend to flow out of the lungs?
digestion
for ingested food to become available to the body cells, it must first be broken down physically and chemically into its smaller diffusible molecules- the process is called
GI Tract and the accesory digestive organs
the organs of the digestive system are traditionally separated into two major groups:
mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa and serosa or adventitia
the alimentary canal walls have four tunics:
larynx
it is subdivided into nasopharynx, oropharynx and laryngopharyn
esophagus
extends from the pharynx through the diaphragm to the gastroesophageal sphinter in the superior aspect of the stomach
pyloric sphincter
after the food is processed in the stomach, it resembles a creamy mass (chyme), which enters the small intestine through what?
duodenum, jejunum and ileum
subdivisions of the small intestine
parotid, submandibular and sublingual
list the 3 pair of salivary glands
parotid
large glands located anterior to the ear and ducting into the mouth over the second upper molar through the parotid duct
submandibular
located along the medial aspect of the mandibular body in the floor or the mouth, and ducting under the tongue to the base of the lingual frenulum
sublingular
small glands located most anteriorly in the floor of the mouth and emptying under the tongue via several small ducts
large intestine
its major function is to consolidate and propel the unusable fecal matter toward the anus and eliminate it from the body,
gallbladder
stores bile
kupffer cells
star-shaped hepatic macrophages
amylase
the enzyme that is produced by the salivary glands and secreted into the mouth, hydrolyzes starch to maltose.
trypsin
the enzyme that is secreted by the pancreas, is responsible for breaking down proteins.
pancreatic lipase
the enzyme hydrolyzes neutral fats to their component monoglycerides and fatty acids.
deglutition
swallowing
segmental
movements are local contractions that mix foodstuffs with digestive juices and increase the rate of absorption.
peristaltic movements
the major means of propelling food through most of the digestive viscera