Chapter 2 Lesson 2
Terms in this set (45)
Fish are the largest group of animals with backbones
More than 30,000 kinds of fish known
All fish live in water
Found in every water habitat on the earth. They are found in the deepest trenches in the ocean. They can live in warm waters of lakes and rivers all over the world. Others live in the icy waters of mountain lakes and even in Antartic
Lives in the world's highest large lake - Lake Titicaca in South America
Part of the minnow family and is also known as carp
Most fish have fins that help keep them upright in the water
Fins also help fish steer their way through the water.
Most fish are covered with layers of scales that help protect their bodies. Scales are bony plates in overlapping rows. The scales grow as the fish grows. Eels have only tiny scales and catfish have almost no scales.
organs for breathing found in fish and amphibians.
Fish breathe through gills or feathery structures on the sides of their heads. As water flows over the gills, the fish take in oxygen from the water. The gills also give off carbon dioxide into the water.
one of a large group of animals with backbones that live part of their lives in water and part on land
Type of amphibians
salamander, frogs, toads (over 4000 kinds of amphibians)
Usually live in water after hatching from an egg, but the adults can live on land. However amphibians usually live in wet places. Like fish, an amphibian's body temperature changes with the temperature of its environment.
Fish body temperature
Is about the same temperature as the water they live in. If the temperature of the water changes, the fish's body temperature changes. Animals whose body temperature changes with the temperature of the air or water around them are called cold-blooded animals.
Frogs, like other amphibians, begins its life in the water. Young frogs or tadpoles have gills and breathe like fish. Tadpoles use their tails to help them swim. As the young amphibians get older, they grow legs and lose their gills. Adult frogs get air through their skin but also breathe air through their lungs. Frogs lose their tails as they grow, BUT SALAMANDERS do NOT. Some amphibians, such as mud puppies, live most of their life underwater.
Can see in almost any direction
Long and thin and have four legs. They look like a lizard
An animal with a backbone that has a dry scaly skin
Types of reptiles
snakes, turtles, lizards, alligators
Details of reptiles
They are found in many places. They are found in hot dry deserts; in warm wet tropical rain forests; and in many other environments. Reptiles are cold-blooded. Some warm their bodies by lying in the sun.
Is a reptile. Alligators, like most reptiles, lay their eggs on land. Their eggs have a leathery shell. An alligator lays between 20 to 50 eggs, covers them with mud, and then stands guard while the sun keeps the eggs warm. It takes the eggs 60 days to hatch. The female cares for the young for about a year - sometimes carrying them in her mouth. Alligators, like most reptiles, breathe air their entire life. Alligators mainly feed on fish, turtles, and snails
Sea turtles - egg
Comes out of the water to lay its eggs. A female digs a hole in the sand with her hind feet and lays the eggs into it. She then covers the eggs with sand, packs down the sand, and returns to the sea. The female does not care for the eggs or the young. A female can lay more than 150 eggs at a time
Sea turtles - babies
When they hatch, they find their way to the ocean at once. Most turtles become adults in about 6 to 15 years. Some kinds of turtles have been known to live more than 50 years
Sea turtles - hatching
Turtle eggs hatch in about 45 to 78 days depends on the kind of turtle
Garter snake does not lay eggs. The eggs of a garter snake are hatched inside the body of the female snake. In late summer, a female garter snake gives birth to live baby snakes. The number of babies may vary from 12 to 70 at one time. The young snake do not have to be fed, the babies can find their own food.
All birds alike in some ways
All birds are animals with backbones. The main difference between these animals with backbones and fish, amphibians, and reptiles, birds have the same body temperature all the time. Their body temperature does not change with the temperature of the air around them. Birds are warm-blooded, Birds also have feathers that cover their bodies. They have a pair of wings and a pair of legs.
Birds vary greatly in size.
Smallest is a type of hummingbird - size of your finger. Largest is ostrich - taller than a human.
Can't fly but can run very fast
All birds hatch eggs
most lay two to six eggs at a time. Birds build nests to lay their eggs in. Nests are made from many kinds of materials (twigs, string, leaves, feathers, mud, and many other things). Some birds make their nests in holes in wood or dead trees. Birds care for their eggs until they hatch. One or both parents may sit on the eggs to keep them warm.
Most birds ca fly
Entire body is adapted for flying, Its wings, large breastbone, wishbone, and large chest muscles all make flying possible.
Other adaptions that help birds fly
Hollow bones - birds bones are hollow. Their skeleton is very lightweight. Some bird bones have spaces filled with air throughout the bone. Wings - Owl wing is like our arm - same three parts, hand, lower arm, and upper arm. The owl can bend its upper arm like a person does, The owl flaps its large wings to lift itself into the air. Feathers - birds have two kinds of feathers. The feathers near the body are small and fluffy. These small feathers, called down, trap heat. During the cold weather, a bird can fluff up the down feathers to keep warm. These feathers help the bird maintain its body temperature. A bird's large stiff feathers especially those on the wings help a bird fly
types of mammals
cat, dog, horses, cows, rabbits and others
an animal with a backbone that usually has hair on its body and feeds milk to its young
most have furry coats that trap a layer of air near the body. This helps the animals stay warm. Some mammals have very little hair. Elephants, like dolphins, are mammals with little hair.
They live in many different places. Dolphins and whales are mammals that live in water. Even though they live in water, they have lungs and breathe air. Most mammals, like bats, mountain lions, bison, and caribou, live on land. Bats are the only mammals that can fly.
Largest living mammal
smallest living mammal
Young of mammals
Most mammals are born alive. Two kinds of mammals, the duck-billed platypus and the spiny anteater, lay eggs. They babies that hatch are fed milk from their mothers - just like other mammals.
breathe air through a blowhole at the top of the head. They can stay underwater for long periods of time, but they must come to the surface to breathe.
Young gerbils are born alive. The female gerbil may have from 1 to 12 babies - usually 4 to 7 at one time. The tiny hairless babies are pink in color. They first open their eyes after about 2 to 3 weeks
After about 3 weeks, mother gerbils no longer nurse their young. The young then begin to eat green plants, seeds, roots, bulbs, cereals, fruits, and insects. Young gerbils take about 7 to 12 weeks to become adults.
Gerbils are similar to other rodents, such as mice and rats. The body of an adult gerbil measures about 10-15 cm. Gerbils are found in the wild in deserts or desertlike places in Africa and Asia. They are kept as pets in the United States/
What characteristics do fish and amphibians both have?
Both amphibians and fish's body temperature changes with the temperature of its environment. Fish live in water and amphibians, begin its life in the water, Fish breathe through gills, and amphibians, when they begin life, breathe through gills. Both fish and amphibians have backbones
How does the life cycle of a turtle differ from the life cycle of a garter snake?
Sea turtle - mother lays eggs (about 150 eggs) out of the water. She digs the holes and lays the eggs. She then returns to the water (she does not care for the eggs or babies). The eggs hatch between 45 to 78 days. The turtles find their way to the ocean and survival depends on themselves. They are adults in about 6 to 15 years and some can live to 60 years old. Garter Snakes does not lay eggs. The eggs are hatched inside the mother. The mother gives birth to live babies, from 12 to 70 at one time. The young snakes do not have to be fed - they find their own food,
What characteristics do all birds have?
All birds hatch from eggs. Birds build nests to lay their eggs in. Birds have backbones. They have the same body temperature all the time. Birds are warm-blooded. Birds also have feathers that cover their bodies. Birds have a pair of wings and a pair of legs.
How are mammals alike?
Mammals have backbones that usually have hair and feeds milk to its young.
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