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21 terms

Psych Exam 2; Ch. 7

STUDY
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learning
a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
aristotle
suggested law of association
associative learning
learning to associate a response with a consequence
classical conditioning
Ivan Pavlov, John Watson, before conditioning food (unconditioned stimulus, US) produces salivation (unconditioned response, UR) however the tone (neural stimulus) does not; During conditioning (learning), neural stimulus (tone) and the US (food) are paired, resulting in salivation (UR). After conditioning, the neutral stimulus (now Conditioned Stimulus, CS) elicits salivation (now conditional response, CR)
acquisition
the initial learning state in classical conditioning in which an association between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus takes place
extinction
when the US (food) does not follow the CS (tone), CR (salivation) begins to decrease and eventually causes ________
spontaneous recovery
after a rest period, an extinguished CR (salivation) spontaneously recovers, but is the CS (tone) persists alone, the CR becomes extinct again
stimulus generalization
tendency to respond to stimuli similar to the CS is called generalization, Pavlov conditioned the dog's salivation by using miniature vibrators on the thigh, when he subsequently stimulated other parts of the dog's body, salivation dropped
stimulus discrimination
the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
Skinner
his experiments extend Thorndike's thinking, especially his law of effect. This law states that rewarded behavior is likely to occur again
operant chamber
Skinner developed a box, comes with a bar or key that an animal manipulates to obtain a reinforce
shaping
the operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior towards the desired target behavior through successive approximations
reinforcement
any event that strengthens the behavior it follows, a heat lamp positively reinforces a meerkat's behavior in the cold
fixed ratio
reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
variable ratio
reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses, this is hard to extinguish because of the unpredictability
fixed interval
reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed (preparing for an exam only when the exam draws close)
variable interval
reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals, which produces slow, steady responses (eg pop quiz)
punishment
an aversive event that decreases the behavior it follows
bandura
Bobo doll study indicated that individuals learn through imitating others who receive rewards and punishments
positive observational learning
prosocial models may have prosocial effects
neutral stimulus
In most cases, for conditioning to occur, the _______ needs to come before the unconditioned stimulus