63 terms

Medical Asepsis

STUDY
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Define:
Virulence
Extent of dangerousness of pathogens
Define:
Nonsocomial Infection
Infections acquired while a person is receiving care in a health care agency
Also known as hospital acquired infections
Describe the characteristics of mircoorganisms
Tiny, Cannot be seen by the naked eye, Seen by microscope, Commonly called germs, Only a small number are harmful (Pathogens)
What are the conditions that must be present for the growth of microorganisms
Conditions that promote survival including warmth, darkness, oxygen, water, and nourishment
What is the body's natural defenses and factors that weaken these defenses
Inadequate nutrition, Poor hygiene, Suppressed immune system, Chronic illness, Insufficient white blood cells, Prematurity, Advanced age, Compromised skin integrity, Weakened cough reflex, Diminished blood circulation
Identify the 5 components of the infectious cycle
1. A reservoir for growth and reproduction
2. An exit route from the reservoir
3. A mode of transmission
4. A port of entry
5. A susceptible host
What is the difference between medical and surgical asepsis
Medical Asepsis - Clean - Reduces or inhibits number and growth of microorganism
Surgical Asepsis - Sterile - Eliminates all organisms, both pathogenic and non-pathogenic, including spores
List common nursing practices of medical asepsis
Anytime the nurse is with the patient
Discuss the use of antimicrobial agents
Antimicrobial agents are chemicals that destroy or suppress the growth of infectious microorganisms,
It kills, supresses, or reduces microorganisms on the surface
Discuss current agency policies governing the wearing gloves when performing routine nursing care, and explain the rational
Wear gloves when there is a potential or when coming in contact with body fluids, secretions, and non-intact skin
List safety factors that pertain to the handwashing procedure
Protect hands/skin, Dry well to prevent chapping, Wipe up spills, Prevent contact with pathogens, Leave fingernails short, Limit Jewelry, Use lotion to prevent chapping
List the four elements necessary in reducing microorganisms when washing hands
- Running water
- Friction
- Cleansing Agent
- Time
Describe microorganisms
Living animals or plants visible only with a microscope
They are commonly called germs
Name 8 specific types of microorganisms
Bacteria, Protozoans, Viruses, Mycoplasmas, Fungi, Helminths, Rickettisae, Prions
Differentiate between nonpathogens and pathogens
Nonpathogens - Harmless and Beneficial
Pathogens - Causes Illnesses
Differentiate between resident and transient microorganisms
Resident - Nonpathogens constantly on skin
Transient - Pathogens picked up during contamination
Differentiate between aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms
Aerobic - Requires Oxygen to live
Anaerobic - Exist without Oxygen
Give 2 (of 8) examples of the ways some microorganisms have adapted for their survival
- Prescribing antibiotics for minor or self-limited infections
- Administering antibiotics prophylactically (for preventing) in the absence of an infection
- Failing to take the full course of antibiotic therapy
- Taking someone else's prescribed antibiotic without knowing whether it is effective for one's symptoms
- Prescribing antibiotics for viral infections
- Dispersing antibiotic solutions into the environment
- Administering antibiotics to livestock, leaving traces of drug residue that humans consume after their slaughter
- Spreading nonsocomial pathogens via unwashed or poorly washed hands
Name the 6 examples of biologic defense mechanisms
1. An infectious agent
2. A reservoir for growth and reproduction
3. An exit route from the reservoir
4. A mode of transmission
5. A port of entry
6. A susceptible host
Discuss the concept of asepsis
Practices that decrease or eliminate infectious agents, their reservoirs, and vehicles for transmission
Identify at least 3 principles of medical asepsis
- Microorganisms exist everywhere except on sterilized equipment
- Frequent handwashing and maintaining intact skin reduces transmission of microorganism
- Blood, body fluids, cells, and tissue are major reservoirs of microorganisms
- Personal protective equipments serve as barrier to microbial transmission
List 5 examples of medical aseptic practices
Antimicrobial agents, Performing hand hygiene, Wearing hospital garments, Confining and containing soiled materials appropriately, Keeping the environment as clean as possible
Name at least 3 techniques for sterilizing equipment
Physical Sterilization: Radiation, Boiling Water, Free-Flowing Steam, Dry Heat, Steam Under Pressure
Chemical Sterilization: Peracetic Acid, Ethylene Oxide Gas
Identify at least 3 principles of surgical asepsis
- They preserve sterility by touching one sterile item with another that is sterile
- Once a sterile item touches something that is not, it is considered contaminated
- Any partially unwrapped sterile package is considered contaminated
- If there is a question about the sterility of an item, it is considered unsterile
- The longer the time since sterilization, the more likely it is that the item is no longer sterile
- A commercially packaged sterile item is not considered sterile past its recommended expiration date
- Once a sterile item is opened or uncovered, it is only a matter of time before it becomes contaminated
- The outer 1" margin of a sterile area is considered a zone of contamination
- A sterile wrapper, if it becomes wet, wicks microorganisms from its supporting surface, causing contamination
- Any opened sterile item or sterile area is considered contaminated if it is left unattended
- Coughing, sneezing, or excessive talking over a sterile field causes contamination
- Reaching across an area that contains sterile equipment has a high potential for causing contamination and is therefore avoided
- Sterile items that are located or lowered below waist level are considered contaminated because they are not within critical view
List at least 3 nursing activities that require application of the principles of surgical asepsis
-Surgery, OR, OB, -When performing invasive procedures: Inserting Catheters, Caring for open wound care, special procedures, IV insertion
Where are microorganisms
Air, Soil, Water, ect...
They have weight
Cite examples of biologic defense mechanisms
Mechanical - Physical barriers that prevent microorganisms from entering the body or expel them before they multiply
Chemical - Destroy or incapacitate microorganisms through natural biologic substances
What are biologic defense mechanisms
Anatomic or physiologic methods that stop microorganisms from causing an infectious disorder
Viruses
The smallest microorganisms known to cause infectious diseases, are visible only with an electron microscope.
fimbriae
tiny hairs used to attach themselves to the host's tissue to avoid expulsion
What are the 3 types of fungal (mycotic) infections
Superficial
Intermediate
Systemic
What do superficial fungal infections affect
the skin, mucous membranes, hair and nails
What are superficial fungal infections
tinea corporis (ring worm)
tinea pedis (athlete's foot)
candidiasis (vaginal yeast infection)
What do intermediate fungal infections affect
subcutaneous tissue
What are intermediate fungal infections
fungal granuloma (an inflammatory lesion under the skin)
What do systemic fungal infections affect
they infect deep tissues and organs
What are systemic fungal infections
histoplasmosis in the lungs
rickettsiae resemble
bacteria
rickettsiae cannot survive
outside another living species
human don't get rickettsiae they get
rickettsial diseases
Protozoans are ______-celled animals
singled
Protozoans are classified according to
their ability to move
Mycoplasmas lack
a cell wall
Mycoplasmas are referred to as pleomorphic because they
assume various shapes
Helminths are
infectious worms, some of which are microscopic
What are the 3 major groups of helminths
nematodes
cestodes
trematodes
nematodes are
roundworms
cestodes are
tapeworms
trematodes are
flukes
a prion is a protein containing
no nucleic acid
what one characteristic do all microorganisms have in common
although infinitesimally small, they are powerful enough to cause disease
What is a spore
a temporarily inactive microbial life form that can resist heat and destructive chemicals and survive without moisture
Define:
Opportunistic infections
an infectious disorders among people with compromised health
What is a reservoir
a place where microbes grow and reproduce, providing a haven for their survival
"silent reservoir" are pathogens that are
resistant to antimicrobial agents - the most dangerous type of all
What is the exit route
how microorganisms escape from their original reservoir and move about
What is the mode of transmission
how infectious microorganisms move to another location
What is the port of entry
Where microorganisms find their way onto or into a new host, facilitating their relocation.
What is a susceptible host
the last link in the chain of infection, is one whose biologic defense mechanisms are weakened in some way
What are examples of medical aseptic practices
antimicrobial agents
performing hand hygiene
wearing hospital garments
confining and containing soiled materials appropriately, and keeping the environment as clean as possible
What is the viral load
number of viral copies
what is resident microorganisms
generally non-pathogens constantly present on the skin
What are transient microorganisms
pathogens picked up during brief contact with contaminated reserviors