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Geo Test 1
Terms in this set (25)
2 core themes
space and place
2 major subfields
physical and human geography
What is latitude?
measures distance north and south of equator
what is parallel of latitude?
lines running east and west that connects all places at the same latitude
where are some of the most significant parallels?
tropic of cancer
tropic of capricorn
what is longtitude?
measures distance east and west of the prime meridian
what are the meridians of longitude?
the prime meridian
international date line
how do the "rules" of latitude and longitude create problems when cartographers make a flat world map?
area and shape distortion
how long does it take for the earth to revolve around the sun?
What is the Coriolis Effect?
The effect of Earth's rotation on the direction of winds and currents.
what is the difference between climate and weather?
climate describes the weather over a long period of time
weather refers to short term changes in the atmosphere
what are the 3 major elements of climate?
what is the most important influence on temperatures around the earth and why?
angle at which the sun's rays strikes the earth
vertical vs oblique rays
vertical- suns energy more focused
oblique- suns energy dispersed over a larger area
where do seasons tend to vary the most, and where do they tend to vary the least?
what causes seasonal variation?
What are solstices and equinoxes? when do they occur? how do they relate to seasonal changes in the northern and southern
solstices-summer (longest day), winter (shortest day); equinox-spring and fall (equal day and night all over earth)
they relate because of the revolution of earth around sun and the tilt of the earths rotation axis
Why does precipitation occur?
1) air must be lifted
2) as air rises, it begins to cool
3) as air cools, water vapor in air condenses
4) enough condensation occurs, it begins to rain
what is convectional precipitation?
the warm ground heats the air over it. air molecules become "lighter" and rise rapidly into the atmosphere. As the air rises, it cools and moisture condenses into precipitation
"hot air balloon"
What is orographic precipitation?
mountain ranges, precipitation created by mountains
what is frontal precipitation?
most common, when two fronts or air masses of different temperatures meet, the warm air is forced up by the cool air, the rising air then cools and forms precipitation
A dry area on the downwind side of a mountain.
What is the greenhouse effect?
the trapping of the sun's warmth in a planet's lower atmosphere
What are tectonic plates?
sections into which the earth's crust is broken
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