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91 terms

Sociology Exam 2

STUDY
PLAY
Socialization
A process in which we learn and internalize the attitudes, values, beliefs, and norms of our culture and develop a sense of self.
Facets of socialization
1. Culture
2. Societies
3. Values
4. Social Norms
Sociobiology
A field that integrates theories and research from biology and sociology in an effort to better understand human behavior
Personality
A dominant pattern of attitudes, feelings, and behaviors
Sense of Self
A person's conscious recognition that he or she is a distinct individual who is part of a larger society
I
In Mead's schema, the unsocialized self as subject (I want to eat, I am tired)
Me
In Mead's schema, the socialized self as object
Looking Glass-Self
Cooley's concept that individuals use others like mirrors and base their conceptions of themselves on what is reflected back to them during social interaction
Situated Self
The self that emerges in a particular situation
Agents of socialization
Those groups and institutions that both informally and formally take on the task of socialization
Social Learning Theory
he idea that much human behavior is learned from modeling others → Role Modeling
Individuals learn the attitudes, values, beliefs, and social norm of society through modeling and through reward and punishment
Techno media
Computers and electronic telecommunication
Life Course
A process in which individuals move from one biological social stage to another as they grow and develop
Rites of Passage
Ceremonies that symbolically acknowledge transitions from one life stage to another
Primary Socialization
The learning of human characteristics and behaviors and the development of a concept of self
Role Taking
The ability to anticipate what others expect of us, and to act accordingly.
Significant Others
Specific people with whom we interact and whose response has meaning for us
Generalized Others
The dominant attitudes and expectations of most members of society
Anticipatory Socialization
Learning designed to prepare an individual for the fulfillment of future statuses and roles
Developmental Socialization
Learning better to fulfill the roles we already occupy
Desocialization
The "unlearning" of previous normative expectations and roles
Resocialization
Learning a radically different set of norms, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors.
Conflict Theorist
Social stratification causes conflict
Structural Functionalist
Institutions serve as a medium of acquiring what is right and wrong
Life Course Perspective
Moving from one life stage to the next
Social Differentiation
A process in which people are set apart for differential treatment by virtue of their statuses, roles, and other social characteristics.
Social Inequality
A condition in which people have unequal access to wealth, power, and prestige
Social Stratification
A form of inequality in which categories of people are systematically ranked in a hierarchy on the basis of their access to scarce but valued resources.
Four caste systems
1. Slave system
2. Caste System
3. Estate system
4. Class system
Wealth
A person or family's total economic assets
Power
The ability to realize one's will, even against the resistance and the opposition of others.
Prestige
The respect and admiration people attach to various social positions.
Socioeconomic status
A ranking that combines income, occupational prestige, level of education, and neighborhood to asses people's positions in the stratification system.
Dimensions of social classes
1. Income
2. Wealth
3. Occupational Prestige
4. Education
Income
Combined wages or salary plus earnings from investments
Income gap
Distance between the top and bottom earners in the US and it's getting bigger, comparison between the top 20 percent and the bottom 20 percent
Wealth
A person or family's total economic assets minus their outstanding debts
Occupational Prestige
How much social standing a person of a particular occupation would be viewed as having, just on the basis of their job
Education
Formal schooling
Culture of poverty
A set of norms, beliefs, values, and attitudes that trap a small number of the urban poor in a permanent cycle of poverty.
Life chances
Opportunities for securing such things as health, education, autonomy, leisure, and a long life.
Social mobility
The movement of people from one social position to another in the stratification system. All about opportunity
Intergenerationally
Is your social class different from that of your family of origin?
Intrageneraltionally
Have you changed social class through your adult life
Structural Mobility
Large-scale changes in occupational, educational, and corporate social structures that enable people to move up or down in the stratification system.
Sex
Biological and physical differences between females and males
Gender
Cultural understanding of what constitutes masculinity and femininity in a society
Transgender
Individuals whose gender identity differs from the sex of their birth ("trapped in a woman's/man's body")
Transsexual
Individuals who undergo surgery to change their biological sex
Sexual Orientation
Preference of sex partners
Gender Roles
The social and cultural expectations associated with a person's sex
Masculinity
Attributes considered appropriate for males
Femininity
Attributes considered appropriate for females
Gender Identity
Acknowledging one's sex and internalizing the norms, values, and behaviors of the accompanying gender expectations
Androgyny
A blending of masculine and feminine attributes
Sexism
The idea that one gender is inherently superior or inferior to another
Patriarchy
A system in which males dominate females in most spheres of life (politics, economics, family, etc.)
Matriarchy
A system in which women dominate men politically, economically, socially
Feminism
The ideology aimed at eliminating patriarchy in support of equality between the sexes
Oppression
An interrelated system of forces and barriers which reduce, immobilize, and mold people who belong to a certain group.
Sex Marking
The elaborate, systematic, ubiquitous and redundant marking of a distinction between two sexes of humans
3 types of sex marking
1. Bodily and physical adornment
2. Movement and posture
3. Speaking
Biological Race
A population that differs from others in the frequency of certain hereditary traits
Races
Categories of people set apart from others because of socially defined physical characteristics
Ethnicity
Statuses based on cultural heritage and shared "feelings of people hood"
Ethnic group
A category of people set apart from others because of distinctive customs and lifestyles
Minority Group
A category of people who are set apart for unequal treatment because of physical or cultural characteristics
Prejudice
Preconceived judgments about a category of people
Racism
Beliefs and attitudes that one racial category is inherently superior or inferior to another
Scapegoat
A weak, convenient, and socially approved target
Ethnocentrism
The tendency to judge the customs of others according to one's own cultural standards
Stereotypes
Static and oversimplified ideas about a group or a social category
Split-labor market
An economic situation in which two groups of workers are willing to do the same work for different wages
Discrimination
Unequal treatment of people because of their group membership
Cultural Pluralism
When racial and ethnic groups cooperate while still retaining their distinctive identities and lifestyles.
Assimilation
A process in which minority groups lose their distinctive identities and conform to cultural patterns of the dominant group.
Segregation
Physical or social exclusion of minority groups from dominant group activities (social and public things).
Genocide
Deliberate and systematic elimination of minority group members
Asian Americans
Fastest growing minority group in the USA
Latinos
Largest minority group in the USA
Gerontology
The scientific study of aging and the elderly
Senescence
Natural deterioration of cells and organs as a result of aging
Gerontocracy
A society in which the elderly control most of the society's wealth, power, and prestige.
Ageism
The belief that people in a particular age category are inferior to people in other age categories.
Gray panthers
An organization with the goal of eliminating ageism in all its forms.
Thanatology
The scientific study of death and dying
Social Disengagement theory
Contends that as people age they gradually withdraw from social participation and simultaneously are relieved of social responsibilities.
Activity theory of aging
Contends that it is the extent to which an individual remains engaged in meaningful social activities that determines the quality of live in old age.
Conflict approach to aging
Asserts that the elderly compete with younger members of society for the same resources and social rewards and suffer a variety of disadvantages because of their relative lack of social power.
Subculture theory of aging
States that older persons form subcultures in order to interact with others with similar backgrounds, experiences, attitudes, and lifestyles.
Exchange theory of aging
Contends that norms of reciprocity govern interaction and that elderly people engage in meaningful social interactions as long as they are mutually beneficial to all parties.