A process in which we learn and internalize the attitudes, values, beliefs, and norms of our culture and develop a sense of self.
Facets of socialization
1. Culture 2. Societies 3. Values 4. Social Norms
A field that integrates theories and research from biology and sociology in an effort to better understand human behavior
A dominant pattern of attitudes, feelings, and behaviors
Sense of Self
A person's conscious recognition that he or she is a distinct individual who is part of a larger society
In Mead's schema, the unsocialized self as subject (I want to eat, I am tired)
In Mead's schema, the socialized self as object
Cooley's concept that individuals use others like mirrors and base their conceptions of themselves on what is reflected back to them during social interaction
The self that emerges in a particular situation
Agents of socialization
Those groups and institutions that both informally and formally take on the task of socialization
Social Learning Theory
he idea that much human behavior is learned from modeling others → Role Modeling Individuals learn the attitudes, values, beliefs, and social norm of society through modeling and through reward and punishment
Computers and electronic telecommunication
A process in which individuals move from one biological social stage to another as they grow and develop
Rites of Passage
Ceremonies that symbolically acknowledge transitions from one life stage to another
The learning of human characteristics and behaviors and the development of a concept of self
The ability to anticipate what others expect of us, and to act accordingly.
Specific people with whom we interact and whose response has meaning for us
The dominant attitudes and expectations of most members of society
Learning designed to prepare an individual for the fulfillment of future statuses and roles
Learning better to fulfill the roles we already occupy
The "unlearning" of previous normative expectations and roles
Learning a radically different set of norms, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors.
Social stratification causes conflict
Institutions serve as a medium of acquiring what is right and wrong
Life Course Perspective
Moving from one life stage to the next
A process in which people are set apart for differential treatment by virtue of their statuses, roles, and other social characteristics.
A condition in which people have unequal access to wealth, power, and prestige
A form of inequality in which categories of people are systematically ranked in a hierarchy on the basis of their access to scarce but valued resources.
Four caste systems
1. Slave system 2. Caste System 3. Estate system 4. Class system
A person or family's total economic assets
The ability to realize one's will, even against the resistance and the opposition of others.
The respect and admiration people attach to various social positions.
A ranking that combines income, occupational prestige, level of education, and neighborhood to asses people's positions in the stratification system.
Dimensions of social classes
1. Income 2. Wealth 3. Occupational Prestige 4. Education
Combined wages or salary plus earnings from investments
Distance between the top and bottom earners in the US and it's getting bigger, comparison between the top 20 percent and the bottom 20 percent
A person or family's total economic assets minus their outstanding debts
How much social standing a person of a particular occupation would be viewed as having, just on the basis of their job
Culture of poverty
A set of norms, beliefs, values, and attitudes that trap a small number of the urban poor in a permanent cycle of poverty.
Opportunities for securing such things as health, education, autonomy, leisure, and a long life.
The movement of people from one social position to another in the stratification system. All about opportunity
Is your social class different from that of your family of origin?
Have you changed social class through your adult life
Large-scale changes in occupational, educational, and corporate social structures that enable people to move up or down in the stratification system.
Biological and physical differences between females and males
Cultural understanding of what constitutes masculinity and femininity in a society
Individuals whose gender identity differs from the sex of their birth ("trapped in a woman's/man's body")
Individuals who undergo surgery to change their biological sex
Preference of sex partners
The social and cultural expectations associated with a person's sex
Attributes considered appropriate for males
Attributes considered appropriate for females
Acknowledging one's sex and internalizing the norms, values, and behaviors of the accompanying gender expectations
A blending of masculine and feminine attributes
The idea that one gender is inherently superior or inferior to another
A system in which males dominate females in most spheres of life (politics, economics, family, etc.)
A system in which women dominate men politically, economically, socially
The ideology aimed at eliminating patriarchy in support of equality between the sexes
An interrelated system of forces and barriers which reduce, immobilize, and mold people who belong to a certain group.
The elaborate, systematic, ubiquitous and redundant marking of a distinction between two sexes of humans
3 types of sex marking
1. Bodily and physical adornment 2. Movement and posture 3. Speaking
A population that differs from others in the frequency of certain hereditary traits
Categories of people set apart from others because of socially defined physical characteristics
Statuses based on cultural heritage and shared "feelings of people hood"
A category of people set apart from others because of distinctive customs and lifestyles
A category of people who are set apart for unequal treatment because of physical or cultural characteristics
Preconceived judgments about a category of people
Beliefs and attitudes that one racial category is inherently superior or inferior to another
A weak, convenient, and socially approved target
The tendency to judge the customs of others according to one's own cultural standards
Static and oversimplified ideas about a group or a social category
An economic situation in which two groups of workers are willing to do the same work for different wages
Unequal treatment of people because of their group membership
When racial and ethnic groups cooperate while still retaining their distinctive identities and lifestyles.
A process in which minority groups lose their distinctive identities and conform to cultural patterns of the dominant group.
Physical or social exclusion of minority groups from dominant group activities (social and public things).
Deliberate and systematic elimination of minority group members
Fastest growing minority group in the USA
Largest minority group in the USA
The scientific study of aging and the elderly
Natural deterioration of cells and organs as a result of aging
A society in which the elderly control most of the society's wealth, power, and prestige.
The belief that people in a particular age category are inferior to people in other age categories.
An organization with the goal of eliminating ageism in all its forms.
The scientific study of death and dying
Social Disengagement theory
Contends that as people age they gradually withdraw from social participation and simultaneously are relieved of social responsibilities.
Activity theory of aging
Contends that it is the extent to which an individual remains engaged in meaningful social activities that determines the quality of live in old age.
Conflict approach to aging
Asserts that the elderly compete with younger members of society for the same resources and social rewards and suffer a variety of disadvantages because of their relative lack of social power.
Subculture theory of aging
States that older persons form subcultures in order to interact with others with similar backgrounds, experiences, attitudes, and lifestyles.
Exchange theory of aging
Contends that norms of reciprocity govern interaction and that elderly people engage in meaningful social interactions as long as they are mutually beneficial to all parties.