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A process in which we learn and internalize the attitudes, values, beliefs, and norms of our culture and develop a sense of self.
A field that integrates theories and research from biology and sociology in an effort to better understand human behavior
Sense of Self
A person's conscious recognition that he or she is a distinct individual who is part of a larger society
Cooley's concept that individuals use others like mirrors and base their conceptions of themselves on what is reflected back to them during social interaction
Agents of socialization
Those groups and institutions that both informally and formally take on the task of socialization
Social Learning Theory
he idea that much human behavior is learned from modeling others → Role Modeling
Individuals learn the attitudes, values, beliefs, and social norm of society through modeling and through reward and punishment
A process in which individuals move from one biological social stage to another as they grow and develop
Rites of Passage
Ceremonies that symbolically acknowledge transitions from one life stage to another
The learning of human characteristics and behaviors and the development of a concept of self
Learning designed to prepare an individual for the fulfillment of future statuses and roles
A process in which people are set apart for differential treatment by virtue of their statuses, roles, and other social characteristics.
A form of inequality in which categories of people are systematically ranked in a hierarchy on the basis of their access to scarce but valued resources.
A ranking that combines income, occupational prestige, level of education, and neighborhood to asses people's positions in the stratification system.
Distance between the top and bottom earners in the US and it's getting bigger, comparison between the top 20 percent and the bottom 20 percent
How much social standing a person of a particular occupation would be viewed as having, just on the basis of their job
Culture of poverty
A set of norms, beliefs, values, and attitudes that trap a small number of the urban poor in a permanent cycle of poverty.
Opportunities for securing such things as health, education, autonomy, leisure, and a long life.
The movement of people from one social position to another in the stratification system. All about opportunity
Large-scale changes in occupational, educational, and corporate social structures that enable people to move up or down in the stratification system.
Individuals whose gender identity differs from the sex of their birth ("trapped in a woman's/man's body")
Acknowledging one's sex and internalizing the norms, values, and behaviors of the accompanying gender expectations
A system in which males dominate females in most spheres of life (politics, economics, family, etc.)
An interrelated system of forces and barriers which reduce, immobilize, and mold people who belong to a certain group.
The elaborate, systematic, ubiquitous and redundant marking of a distinction between two sexes of humans
Categories of people set apart from others because of socially defined physical characteristics
A category of people set apart from others because of distinctive customs and lifestyles
A category of people who are set apart for unequal treatment because of physical or cultural characteristics
An economic situation in which two groups of workers are willing to do the same work for different wages
When racial and ethnic groups cooperate while still retaining their distinctive identities and lifestyles.
A process in which minority groups lose their distinctive identities and conform to cultural patterns of the dominant group.
Physical or social exclusion of minority groups from dominant group activities (social and public things).
A society in which the elderly control most of the society's wealth, power, and prestige.
The belief that people in a particular age category are inferior to people in other age categories.
Social Disengagement theory
Contends that as people age they gradually withdraw from social participation and simultaneously are relieved of social responsibilities.
Activity theory of aging
Contends that it is the extent to which an individual remains engaged in meaningful social activities that determines the quality of live in old age.
Conflict approach to aging
Asserts that the elderly compete with younger members of society for the same resources and social rewards and suffer a variety of disadvantages because of their relative lack of social power.
Subculture theory of aging
States that older persons form subcultures in order to interact with others with similar backgrounds, experiences, attitudes, and lifestyles.
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