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PSYC 337 - QUIZ AND ESSAY 2
Terms in this set (26)
What are Pierre Flourens' main accomplishments and what methods of research did he use?
+ Concluded that the cerebrum controls higher mental processes; parts of the mid-brain control visual and auditory reflexes; the cerebellum controls coordination; and the medulla governs heartbeat, respiration and other vital functions.
+ Developed the extirpation method with Marshall Hall, which is a technique for determining the function of a given part of an animal's brain by removing or destroying it and observing the resulting behavior changes.
+ Showed Gall wrong by his research on the human skull, disputing Gall's ideologies on phrenology*
Methods of Research:
+ Systematically destroyed parts of the brain and spinal cord in pigeons and observed the consequences.
What are Paul Broca's main accomplishments and what methods of research did he use?
+ Developed the clinical method, which is the posthumous examination of brain structures to detect damaged areas assumed to be responsible for behavioral conditions that existed before the person died.
Methods of Research:
+ Performed an autopsy on a man who had been unable to speak legibly; the examination revealed a lesion in the third frontal convolution of the left hemisphere of the cerebral cortex. He labeled this section of the brain the speech center, and later was known as Broca's area.
+ Clinical method turned out to be a useful supplement rather than extirpation because it's difficult to find human subjects who will volunteer to have parts of their brain removed. (Clinical method usually deals with people that are dead.)
+ Clinical method provides the opportunity to examine the damaged areas of the brain, the area assumed to be responsible for a behavioral condition that existed while the patient was still alive.
What are Franz Josef Gall's main accomplishments and what methods of research did he use?
+ His work confirmed the existence of both white and gray matter in the brain, the nerve fibers connecting each side of the brain to the opposite side of the spinal cord, and the fibers connecting both halves of the brain.
+ Founded the cranioscopy, later known as phrenology, movement which proposed that the shape of a person's skull revealed his/her intellectual and emotional characteristics. (His reputation plummeted from promoting this idea, and he was no longer respected by his colleagues)
+ Helped popularize the movement with his student Johann Spurzheim, and two brothers Orson and Lorenzo Fowler by creating a successful business enterprise in America and a magazine called the American Phrenological Journal.
Methods of Research:
+ Dissected the brains of deceased animals and humans.
+ His studies on animals showed the tendency for species with larger brains to display more intelligent behavior than species with smaller brains, which led him to investigate the shape of the brain (and led to finding the cranioscopy movement)
What are Johannes Muller's main accomplishments and what methods of research did he use?
+ Noteworthy in physiology and psychology for his theory of the specific energies of the nerves. He proposed that the stimulation of a particular nerve always leads to a characteristic sensation, because each sensory nerve has its own specific energy.
+ His idea stimulated a great deal of research aimed at localizing functions within the nervous system and pinpointing sensory receptor mechanisms on the periphery of the organism.
Methods of Research:
+ Advocated the use of the experimental method.
+ Published an average of 1 scholarly paper every seven weeks, maintaining this pace for 38 years before committing suicide.
What are Ramon y Cajal's main accomplishments and what methods of research did he use?
+ Received the Helmholtz Medal from the Royal Academy of Sciences in Berlin in 1905 and the Nobel Prize in 1906 for his discoveries in the direction of travel for nerve impulses in the brain and spinal cord.
Methods of Research:
+ Published journals in Spanish, but were ripped off by English, German, and French journals due the Spanish language not being commonly used in scientific journals.
What did Helmholtz discover about "vision" and "hearing" that is directly related to psychology?
+ Investigated the external eye muscles and the mechanism by which internal eye muscles focus the lens. He revised and extended a theory of color vision published in 1802 by Thomas Young, and this work came to be known as the Young-Helmholtz theory of color vision.
+ Did research on hearing, specifically the perception of tones, the nature of harmony and discord, and the problem of resonance.
What did Weber discover about "two point thresholds" and "just noticeable differences" that is directly related to psychology?
+ Weber's research marks the first experimental demonstration of the concept threshold - the point at which a psychological effect begins to be produced - an idea widely used in psychology from its beginning to the present day.
+ Weber's experimental determination of the accuracy of the two-point discrimination of the skin - the distance between two points before subjects report feeling two distinct sensations.
+ Definition: The threshold at which two points of stimulation can be distinguished as such.
+ His research provided a method for investigating the relationship between body and mind, between the stimulus and the resulting sensation. This was a major breakthrough.
Just noticeable differences:
+ Weber's research led to the formulation of psychology's first quantitative law. Wanted to determine the just noticeable difference - the smallest difference that could be detected between two physical stimuli.
What did Fechner discover about "identifying a quantitative relationship between the mind and body", "specific methods in psycho-physics" and the "definition of psycho-physics" that is directly related to psychology?
Identifying a quantitative relationship between the mind and the body:
+ Fechner had a flash of insight between the mind and the body while lying in bed one morning. He said that a quantitative relationship between a mental sensation and a material stimulus could be found.
+ He proposed two ways to measure sensations:
1. We can determine whether a stimulus is present or absent, sensed or not sensed.
2. We can measure the stimulus intensity at which subjects report that the sensation first occurs, which is the absolute threshold of sensitivity - a point of intensity below which no sensation is reported and above which subjects do experience a sensation.
+ To relate both intensities, we must be able to specify the full range of stimulus values and their resulting sensation values. To accomplish this, Fechner proposed the differential threshold of sensitivity - the least amount of change in a stimulus that gives rise to a change in sensation.
+ Fechner denied ever having this idea credited from Weber, despite attending his lectures and Weber having published a similar topic a few years earlier. It wasn't until a long time later that Fechner digressed and explained that the principle he explained was essentially based on Weber's work.
Specific methods in psycho-physics:
+ Fechner developed one and systematized two of the three total fundamental methods used in psycho-physics research today:
1. The method of average error: consists in having subjects adjust a variable stimulus until they perceive it to be equal to a constant standard stimulus.
2. The method of constant stimuli: involves two constant stimuli, and the aim is to measure the stimulus difference required to produce a given proportion of correct judgement.
3. The method of limits: when two stimuli, are presented to the subjects, one is increased or decreased until subjects report that they detect a difference.
Definition of psycho-physics:
+ The word defines itself: the relationship between the mental (psycho-) and material (physics) worlds.
+ Textbook definition: The scientific study of the relations between mental and physical processes.
What is the significance of Fechner's study of psychophysics to the study of psychology?
At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the German philosopher Immanuel Kant insisted that psychology could never be a science because it was impossible to experiment on or measure psychological processes. Because of Fechner's work, which made it possible to measure mental phenomena, Kant's assertion could no longer be taken seriously.
It was largely because of Fechner's psychophysical research that Wilhelm Wundt conceived his plan for an experimental psychology.
Fechner's methods have proved applicable to a wider range of psychological problems than he ever imagined. Most important, he gave psychology what every discipline must possess if it is to be called a science: precise and elegant techniques of measurement.
Who is the founder of the "new psychology"?
What are the main topics Wundt investigated in cultural psychology?
+ Stages of human development
+ Simple mental functions
+ Higher mental processes
What were Wundt's objectives in the study of the consciousness?
1. Determine the elements of the consciousness
2. Study sensations that are combined in perception
3. Study how attention works with perception to create conscious experiences
The manner in which the mind actively organizes it's experiences through an act of will
Mediate experience (Wundt)
Immediate experience (Wundt)
What are Wundt's "elements of consciousness"?
+ Analyze conscious processes into their basic elements.
+ Discover how these elements were synthesized or organized
+ Determine the laws of connection governing the organization of the elements
+ Suggested that sensations were 1 of 2 elementary forms of experience.
+ Are aroused whenever a sense organ is stimulated and the resulting impulses reach the brain.
+ Feelings was the second elementary form of experience.
+Don't arise from a sense organ, they're accompanied by certain feeling qualities.
Tridimensional Theory of Feelings:
Wundt's explanation for feeling states based on three dimensions: pleasure/displeasure, tension/relaxation, and excitement/depression
What is Wundt's "theory of feelings"?
Theory of feelings:
+ Explanation for feelings states based on 3 dimensions:
The process by which mental elements are organized
What are some of Wundt's basic contributions to psychology (his "legacy")?
What were Wundt's and Ebbinghaus' beliefs on studying higher and mental processing?
+ Concluded that higher mental processes couldn't be experimented on.
+ Experimented successfully on higher mental processes.
The study of individuals' own unique, first-person, conscious experience.
Kulpe's idea that meaning in thought can occur without any sensory or imaginal component
What is the main idea about Ebbinghaus' research on using "nonsense syllables" and how taht contributes to the meaning of the "forgetting curve"?
What are some of Ebbinghaus' contributions to psychology?
lol didn't make anything else
What were Brentano's beliefs about what the meaning of psychology should be and how to study it?
Brentano's system of psychology which focused on mental activities (for example, seeing) rather than on mental contents (for example, that which is seen).
+ Questioned the Wundtian view that mental processes involve contents or elements.
+ Had 2 ways in which to study mental acts:
1. Through memory (recalling the mental processes involved in a particular mental state)
2. Through imagination (imagining a mental state and observing the accompanying mental processes)
ESSAY: Compare and contrast the legacies of Ebbinghaus and Wundt in terms of their contributions to psychology.
(Hint: You would want to include the contributions of each, and introduce arguments for the weight of impact of each.)
+ Methods of research included:
1. Nonsense syllables:
Invented nonsense syllables to create staffs which revolutionized the study of learning. He looked for alternatives to everyday words and had homogenous unfamiliar material, which attributed to the time it took too learn.
2. Forgetting Curve:
Created a learning curve for memorizing the nonsense syllables and it showed that the material was forgotten rapidly in the first few hours after learning, but more slowly thereafter.
+ Other Contributions to Psychology:
Ebbinghaus unfortunately didn't make any theoretical contributions to psychology, created no formal systems, and had no formal disciples; he didn't found a school of thought (nor did he seem to want to).
+ Although, his research brought objectivity, quantification, and experimentation to the study of learning, a topic that remained central to much of the twentieth-century psychology, and many of his conclusions about learning and memory remain valid today.
+ Beliefs on Higher Mental Processing:
Ebbinghaus experimented successfully on the higher mental processes.
+ Methods of research included:
1. Mediate and immediate experiences:
Mediate experiences provide us with information or knowledge about something other than the elements of an experience ("This rose is red." implies that what caught our interest was the flower and not the color of it first). Immediate experiences are our unbiased interpretation of events (Instead of looking at the flower, you just define the object as red and, not looking into it further and identifying the specific object).
2. Introspection: Examining one's mind to inspect and report on personal thoughts and feelings. Combined with a set of rules and conditions, Wundt's purpose of practicing internal perception under stringent experimental conditions is to produce accurate observations that are capable of being replicated, the same way that perception yields observation for the natural sciences that can be repeated independently by other researchers.
+ Experimental Psychology:
Wundt created the term experimental psychology when wanting to learn the scientific study of consciousness such as sensations, images and feelings.
+ Cultural Psychology:
Wundt attempted to study higher mental processes with non-experimental methods of investigation, but unfortunately concluded that it cannot be studied experimentally overall. (Unbeknownst to Ebbinghaus).
+ Unfortunately, Wundt's ideas did not have a lasting impart as cultural psychology was scraped and not pursued (which could just be the issue of timing).
+ His method of introspection was criticized for not being a reliable method.
+ Had many competing theoretical positions that were better sounding than his
+ Didn't gain a lot of popularity in general due to his beliefs on World War I.
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