21 terms

Sociology Test Chapter 3

all that human beings learn to do, to use, to produce, to know, and to believe as they grow to maturity and live out their lives in the social groups to which they belong
culture shock
the difficulty people have adjusting to a new culture that differs markedly from their own. This CAN happen within an individual's own society.
people often make judgements abut other cultures according to the customs and values of their own; leads to discrimination and prejudice
cultural relativism
the recognition that social groups and cultures must be studied and understood on their own terms before valid comparisons can be made
material culture
consists of human technology--all the things human beings make and use, from small handheld tools to skyscrapers
nonmaterial culture
the totality of knowledge, beliefs, values, and rules for appropriate behavior (family, government, education, economy)
the rules of behavior that are agreed upon and shared within a culture and that prescribe limits of acceptable behavior
strongly held norms that usually have a moral connotation and are based on the central values of the culture
ideal norms
expectations of what people should do under perfect conditions
real norms
norms that are expressed with qualifications and allowances for differences in individual behavior
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
argues the language of an individual determines his perception of reality
anything that represents something else and carries a particular meaning recognized by members of a culture
the process by which human beings adjust to change in their environment
any new practice or tool that becomes widely accepted in a society
innovation + diffusion
cultural evolution =
the movement of cultural traits from one culture to another
a trait is modified in some way so that it fits better in its new context
the distinctive lifestyles, values, norms, and beliefs of certain segments of the population within a society
Ethnic, Occupational, Religious, Political, Geographical, Social Class, Deviant
types of subcultures
rights of passage
standardized rituals marking major life transitions
object or thing that can represent other things because they share some important quality with them