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surgical removal of the apical portion of the tooth through a surgical opening made in the overlying bone and gingival tissues
healthy tooth used as a standard to compare questionable teeth of similar size and stucture during pulp vitality testing
infectious condition in which the pulp is incapable of healing which would then require root canal therapy
examination technique that involves tapping on the incisal or occlusal surface of a tooth to assess vitality
referring to the area of nerves, blood vessels and tissues that surrond the root of a tooth
application of dental material to a cavity preparation with an exposed or nearly exposed dental pulp
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