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Chapter 13: Respiratory System
Bonewit-West: Today's Medical Assistant, 3rd Edition
Terms in this set (34)
What are the functions of the respiratory system?
The respiratory system works with the circulatory system to provide oxygen and to remove waste products of metabolism. The respiratory system also helps to regulate the pH of the blood.
What is external respiration?
External respiration involves the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and blood.
What is internal respiration?
Internal respiration involves the exchange of gasses between the blood and tissue cells.
What structures are located in the upper respiratory tract?
The nose, pharynx, and larynx are located in the upper respiratory tract.
What structures are located in the lower respiratory tract?
The trachea, bronchial tree, and lungs are located in the lower respiratory tract.
Describe the following parts of the nose:
a. Nasal cavity:
b. Nasal septum:
d. Internal nares:
a. Nasal cavity: Interior chamber of the nose.
b. Nasal septum: Divides the nose into two parts.
c. Nostrils: Opening through which air enters the nasal cavity.
d. Internal nares: Openings from the nasal cavity into the pharynx.
e. Palate: Separates nasal cavity from oral cavity.
f. Uvula: Posterior projection of the soft palate.
What is the difference between the hard palate and soft palate?
The hard palate is supported by bone and the soft palate has no bony support.
What are the functions of the nasal conchae?
The nasal conchae increase the surface area of the nasal cavity to warm and moisten the air. They also help direct air flow through the nasal cavity. Dust and other particles in the air tend to become trapped in the mucous membrane around the nasal conchae.
What are the paranasal sinuses?
Paranasal sinuses are air-filled cavities in the frontal, maxillae, ethmoid, and sphenoid bones.
What are three functions of the paranasal sinuses?
Paranasal sinuses reduce the weight of the skull, produce mucus, and influence voice quality by acting as resonating chambers.
What is the function of the mucus secreted by the mucous membrane of the nose?
The mucus secreted by the mucous membrane of the nose helps moisten, warm and filter the air as it enters the nose.
What is the function of the cilia in the nasal cavity?
Cilia attached to the epithelium propel the mucus with the trapped particles toward the pharynx, where it is swallowed.
What is the nasopharynx?
The nasopharynx is the portion of the pharynx that is posterior to the nasal cavity and extends to the uvula.
What is the function of the eustachian tubes?
The eustachian tubes help to equalize the air pressure on both sides of the tympanic membrane.
What is the oropharynx?
The oropharynx is the portion of the pharynx that is posterior to the oral cavity. It receives air, food, and water from the oral cavity.
What is the laryngopharynx?
The laryngopharynx is the most inferior portion of the pharynx. It is posterior to the larynx and is continuous to the esophagus.
What is the layman's term for the thyroid cartilage?
Thyroid cartilage is also called the Adam's apple.
What is the function of the epiglottis?
The epiglottis covers the opening into the larynx to prevent food and water from entering the trachea during swallowing.
What are the functions of the following?
a. False vocal cords:
b. True vocal cords:
a. False vocal cords: Work with the epiglottis to prevent particles from entering the lower respiratory tract.
b. True vocal cords: Functions in sound production.
What is the glottis?
The glottis is the opening between the true vocal cords and leads to the trachea.
What holds the trachea open?
The walls of the trachea are supported by 15 to 20 C-shaped pieces of hyaline cartilage that hold the trachea open despite the pressure changes that occur during breathing.
Describe the components of the bronchial tree.
The components of the bronchial tree are the bronchioles, bronchi, and alveoli.
Why do the walls of the alveolar ducts and alveoli consist of simple squamous epithelium?
The walls of the alveolar ducts and alveoli consist of simple squamous epithelium to permit rapid diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Exchanges of gases between the air in the lungs and the blood in the capillaries occurs across the walls of the alveoli.
Why are the lungs soft and spongy?
The lungs are soft and spongy because they are mostly air spaces surrounded by alveolar cells and elastic connective tissue.
How does the right lung differ in appearance from the left lung?
The right lung is shorter, broader, and has greater volume than the left lung. It is divided into three lobes, but the left lung has only two lobes.
What is the pleura?
The pleura is a double-layered serous membrane that encloses the lungs.
What is another name for breathing?
Another name for breathing is pulmonary ventilation.
What is included in one breath?
A breath is one complete respiratory cycle that consists of one inhalation and one exhalation.
How does air move into the lungs during inhalation?
During inhalation air flows into the lungs because the pressure is slower inside than outside.
How does air move out of the lungs during exhalation?
During exhalation air flows from within the lungs to the outside of the body until the two pressures are equal.
Where is the respiratory center located?
The respiratory center is located in the pons and medulla oblongata regions of the brain stem.
What happens if there is an increase in carbon dioxide in the blood?
If there is an increase in carbon dioxide in the blood the receptors stimulate the respiratory center to increase the rate and depth of breathing. This decreases the concentrations back to normal levels.
What are examples of nonrespiratory air movements?
Some examples of nonrespiratory air movements are sneezing and coughing, sighing, hiccupping, crying, laughing, and yawning.
What changes occur to the following parts of the respiratory system because of aging?
a. Cartilage in the walls of the trachea and bronchi:
a. Cartilage in the walls of the trachea and bronchi: Progressive calcification.
b. Bronchioles: Replaced by fibrous tissue and are less able to stretch and contract.
c. Alveoli: Lose some elastic recoil and walls deteriorate between adjacent alveoli.
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