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Mid-Term Exam 19th Century Terms
Terms in this set (53)
"Blood and Iron"
was the speech that Otto Von Bismarck gave with the belief that a strong industry and military was needed in a country to have success. The blood represented the military while the iron represented the industry of Germany
was able to elect a representative to Parliament though having very few voters, the choice of representative typically being in the hands of one person or family
Nineteenth-century idea in Western societies that men and women, especially of the middle class, should have different roles in society: women as wives, mothers, and homemakers; men as breadwinners and participants in business and politics
Scottish economist who wrote the Wealth of Nations a precursor to modern Capitalism.
Territory taken by Germany from France as a rest of the Franco Prussian war. Was later returned to France as a result of German defeat in WWI
After the defeat of the Turks in 1687 Austria took control of all of Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, and Slovenia, thus establishing the Austrian Empire in southeastern Europe. It remained a collection of territories held together by the Habsburg emperor, who was archduke of Austria, king of Bohemia, and king of Hungary
(1772-1837)-A leading utopian socialist who envisaged small communal societies in which men and women cooperated in agriculture and industry, abolishing private property and monogamous marriage as well.
Corn Laws of 1815
English law prohibits the importation of foreign grain. This makes domestic grain more expesive and in turn makes the aristocracy richer, while the poor who have to pay for higher grain now, get poorer. This law sparks mass protests among lower classes
Unified Northern Italy
Building erected in London, for the Great Exhibition of 1851. Made of iron and glass, like a gigantic greenhouse, it was a symbol of the industrial age.
(1772-1823)-English economist who formulated the "iron law of wages," according to which wages would always remain at the subsistence level for the workers because of population growth.
Dreyfus Affair (1894)
a Jewish Officer in the French army, was accused of being a spy, and other crimes against France. People thought he wrote letters to the Germans telling them about secrets of the French army.
(1729-1797) Member of British Parliament and author of Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790), which criticized the underlying principles of the French Revolution and argued conservative thought.
Inventor of the modern power loom.
This was a public health official who wrote reports on the poor living conditions of the cities and believed that poverty was caused by illnesses
romantic artist who painted Liberty Leading the People
Factory Act of 1833
An act that limited the factory workday for children between nine and thirteen years of age to eight hours and that of adolescents between fourteen and eighteen years of age to twelve hours.
first convened in 1864, it was also known as the International Working Men's Association. It was an eclectic gathering eventually headed by Karl Marx, who used it to spread his ideas about socialism and the need for revolution in the capitalist society. Members of it hoped that the Paris Commune would be the spark for revolution across Europe, although it obviously failed.
socialist who wrote the Communist Manifesto with Karl Marx in 1848 (1820-1895)
(1809-1884), appointed by Napoleon III to reorganize Paris, razed buildings to create wide boulevards (prevent easy construction of barricades), demolished slums, created parks and open spaces, improved water supply system
inventor of the spinning jenny
Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819).
1818-1883. 19th century philosopher, political economist, sociologist, humanist, political theorist, and revolutionary. Often recognized as the father of communism. Analysis of history led to his belief that communism would replace capitalism as it replaced feudalism. Believed in a classless society.
Bismarck's attack on the Catholic Church
The highly skilled workers, such as factory foremen and construction bosses, who made up about 15 percent of the working classes from about 1850 to 1914.
A Paris journalist, editor of Revue de Progres and author of Organization of Work. Proposed social workshops/state supported manufacturing centers as a way to deal with the problems of industrialization(recognized the developing hostility toward the owning class/bourgeoisie).
A French chemist, this man discovered that heat could kill bacteria that otherwise spoiled liquids including milk, wine, and beer.
Austrian foreign minister who basically controlled the Congress of Vienna. Wanted to promote peace, conservatism, and the repression of libaral nationalism throughout Europe.
nephew of Napolean Bonaparte; became president of France in December 1848; seized power in coup d'état, ruled France as emperor until 1870; attempted to liberalize the empire
under the influence of Louis Blanc, the workshops were cooperative factories run by the workers that came to provide jobs consisting of leaf-raking and ditch-digging for unemployed workers. When it cost too much, they were shut down, workers fought. Thousands were killed and four-thousand prisoners were deported.
A Muslim empire based in Turkey that lasted from the 1300's to 1922.
The act of providing sexual services in exchange for money, drugs, or other goods. It is a serious social evil and a sin against the Sixth Commandment.
A tax on imported goods that raises the price of imports so people will buy domestic goods
Revolutions of 1848
a series of political upheavals throughout the European continent. Described by some historians as a revolutionary wave, the period of unrest began in France and then, soon spread to the rest of Europe.
(1712-1778) Believed that society threatened natural rights and freedoms. Wrote about society's corruption caused by the revival of sciences and art instead of it's improvement. He was sponsored by the wealthy and participated in salons but often felt uncomfortable and denounced them. Wrote "The Social Contract."
Bismarck formed an alliance with Austria to seize these colonies from Denmark
Sturm und Drang
This was what the early German Romantics called themselves
an English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their joint publication Lyrical Ballads
A Russian general who led a national revolt in Greece in 1821. The revolt was unsuccessful because the Great Powers would not support his revolt, but instead supported the Ottoman Empire.
A German customs union founded to increase trade and stimulate revenues of its members
A form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms
an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.
Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.
commitment to traditional values rather than changing old ways
Limitation of government by law, developed in times of absolutism.
the exercise of absolute power, especially in a cruel and oppressive way.
A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to a king in return for loyalty and military service
being independent or self reliant; knowing ones freedom
A belief that government can and should achieve justice and equality of opportunity.
a political and economic way of organizing society, where the workers own the means of production.
A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
a political theory that supports state ownership of industry
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