60 terms



Terms in this set (...)

Puritan motive (build a city on a hill, i.e. provide a model)
The original Puritans sought a large reform from what Christianity had turned into during the Middle Ages. They wanted to return Christianity to its roots and not just what people had made it. However, later, Puritan beliefs were used in the Great Awakening (mid 1700s, America) to manipulate and control people so that those in power would not lose it. The Puritains believed in religious tolerance, only among those of the protestent denomination. They wanted to leave England so they would no longer be condemned by the "corrupt" church of England.
Motive of those settling Virginia (seek profit)
The motive was different than that of the later Puritians. The men that settled the first English colony in Jamestown Virginia wanted to make a profit and eventually move back to their homeland. The conditions and circumstances were harsh. Tobacco was introduced and saved the colony. Most colonists remained loyal to the crown because they were not interested in creating a permantent residence and relied on the homeland for economic stability (trade and goods)
1st Great Awakening (Ivy League colleges founded by New Lights)
a period of heightened religious activity, primarily in the United Kingdom and its North American colonies in the 1730s and 1740s Although the idea of a "great awakening" is contested, it is clear that the period was a time of increased religious activity, particularly in New England. The arrival of the young Anglican preacher George Whitefield probably sparked the religious conflagration. Whitefield, whose reputation as a great pulpit and open-air orator had preceded his visit, traveled through the colonies in 1739 and 1740. Everywhere he attracted large and emotional crowds, eliciting countless conversions as well as considerable controversy. Critics condemned his "enthusiasm", his censoriousness, and his extemporaneous and itinerant preaching
The religion of the Enlightenment (1700s). Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws. Denied that God communicated to man or in any way influenced his life.
Albany Congress,1754 (Franklin, first attempt to unite colonies - failed)
Established in 1754 and was led by Ben Franklin and was also created by British government for greater unity within the colonies so that they could help to defeat French. Bribed Indian chiefs for loyalty. Delegates accepted an unity plan,but colonies and Britain both declined
Legal rights of women (colonial era)
Women who were maried in colonial times had very few leagally secured rights. While most women did marry, some women remained single. Single or widowed women were allowed more freedoms, like owning property. no voting rights and for the most part no rights or power in government at all
Stamp Act / Stamp Congress
*met in New York City with twenty-seven delegates from nine colonies in 1765; had little effect at the time but broke barriers and helped toward colonial unity; the act caused an uprising because there was no one to sell the stamps and the British did not understand why the Americans could not pay for their own defense; the act was repealed in 1766,
*A tax that the British Pariliament placed on newspapers and official documents sold in the American Colonies
Slavery in pre-independence times
a social-economic system under which certain persons — known as slaves — are deprived of personal freedom and compelled to perform labour or services. discrimination, hard times, and rough conditions are frequent. majority of slaves were used in southern plantations as field workers
Indentured servants (all the rage prior to slavery)
People who could not afford passage to the colonies could become indentured servants. Another person would pay their passage, and in exchange, the indentured servant would serve that person for a set length of time (usually seven years) and then would be free.
Proclamation of 1763
issued by King goege III following Great Britain's acquisition of French territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War. organize Britain's vast new North American empire, and to stabilize relations with North American Indians through regulation of trade, settlement, and land purchases on the western frontier. forbade Americans from settling or buying land west of the Appalachians.
Articles of Confederation
this document, the nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781during the revolution. the document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage
Bill of Rights (1st 10 Amendments to Constitution, protecting individual liberties, and giving states the powers not directly given to the feds)
A formal statement of the fundamental rights of the people of the United States, incorporated in the Constitution as Amendments 1-10, and in all state constitutions.
Hamilton's economic plans
Federalist: Government would pay for debts by wealthy buying bonds to pay for debt. In this way, old bonds replaced by new bonds. Always going to have debt so there will be a need for wealthy people.Pay back IOU's, but rich people had bought the promissory notes for a lot less that what they were worth before people knew they were getting money back. New owners received the money. Hamilton wanted national bank. it would give loans, help businesses, collect taxes, but if this happens then all private banks would go out of business (because nat. bank beats all) and a lot of anti feds owned private banks so opposed this
Shay's Rebellion
this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes
XYZ Affair
incident in which French agents demanded a bribe and loan from the U.S. diplomats in exchange for discussing an agreement that French privateers would no longer attack American ships; led to an undeclared war between U.S. and France, An insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called "X,Y, and Z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand.
Marbury .v. Madison
The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress, (the Judiciary Act of 1789).
Louisiana Purchase - why ? control mouth of Mississippi
The U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon, in 1803. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America. The U.S. gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size.
Hartford Convention (federal law null & void ??)
December 1814 - A convention of New England merchants who opposed the Embargo and other trade restriction, and the War of 1812. They proposed some Amendments to the Constitution and advocated the right of states to nullify federal laws. They also discussed the idea of seceding from the U.S. if their desires were ignored. The Hartford Convention turned public sentiment against the Federalists and led to the demise of the party.
Eli Whitney (interchangeable parts to rifle, cotton gin)
1793, an American who invented the cotton gin. Hand operated at first, sped up removal of seeds from the raw cotton fiber. Made American cotton a more viable alternative to Indian cotton for British textile manufacturers -> increase in cotton textiles (& also in importance of slave labor in southern United States).
Henry Clay's "American System" (high tariffs, BUS, federal funding of internal improvements)
In his tariff speech to Congress on March 30- 31, 1824, Clay proposed a protective tariff in support of home manufactures, internal improvements such as federal aid to local road and canal projects, a strong national bank, and distribution of the profits of federal land sales to the states.
Monroe Doctrine
1823, A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere., Issued by Monroe as a result of Spanish colonies declaring their independence.
Andrew Jackson(Indian removal, veto Congress, opposes nullification, opposes BUS, supports Westward expansion)
The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers., Democrat, "Old Hickory"
Trail of Tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4,000 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
Nullification, John C. Calhoun, Tariff of Abominations (1828)
John Caldwell Calhoun (March 18, 1782 - March 31, 1850) was a leading politician and political theorist from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century. A powerful intellect, Calhoun eloquently spoke out on every issue of his day, but often changed positions. Calhoun began his political career as a nationalist and proponent of protective tariffs; later, he switched to states' rights, limited government, nullification and free trade. He is best known for his intense and original defense of slavery as a positive good, for his promotion of minority rights, and for pointing the South toward secession from the Union.
included Whitman, Thoreau, Emerson - promoted self-reliance, transcending to truth, inner light/peace/spirit, rejected traditional religion, Believed in Transcendentalism,Many of them formed cooperative communities such as Brook Farm and Fruitlands, in which they lived and farmed together with the philosophy as their guide. "They sympathize with each other in the hope that the future will not always be as the past." It was more literary than practical - Brook Farm lasted only from 1841 to 1847.
Ralph Waldo Emerson (stressed individuality, self-reliance)
Essayist, poet. A leading transcendentalist, emphasizing freedom and self-reliance in essays which still make him a force today. He had an international reputation as a first-rate poet. He spoke and wrote many works on the behalf of the Abolitionists.
Wm Lloyd Garrison, "The Liberator" - abolitionist
Ardent abolitionist that fought against slavery for moral reasons. His influence brought many people to his standard, as well as to oppose him. He created the Anti-Slavery Society. argued for immediate and complete emancipation of all slaves and founded The Liberator, An anti-slavery newspaper It drew attention to abolition, both positive and negative, causing a war of words between supporters of slavery and those opposed.
Harriet Tubman - Underground Railway
American abolitionist. Born a slave on a Maryland plantation, she escaped to the North in 1849 and became the most renowned conductor on the Underground Railroad, leading more than 300 slaves to freedom.
Dred Scott .v. Sanford, 1857 (slave is not a citizen, slave is property, Missouri Compromise is dead)
Court ruled that Scott was the property of Sanford and, as a slave, was prohibited from suing in court. Chief Justice Taney gives his opinion that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional. Decision adds to sectionalism between North and South that will lead to the Civil War.
Popular Sovereignty
The concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. People express themselves through voting and free participation in government, rule by the people, people hold the final authority in all matters of government
Kansas-Nebraska Act
1854-This Act set up Kansas and Nebraska as states. Each state would use popular sovereignty to decide what to do about slavery. People who were proslavery and antislavery moved to Kansas, but some antislavery settlers were against the Act. This began guerrilla warfare., An act made to decide if the Kansas-Nebraska territory would be slave or free by popular sovereignty. The dispute strengthened the rift between the north and south states.
(popular sovereignty can exclude slavery anywhere)
Doctrine developed by Stephen Douglas that said the exclusion of slavery in a territory could be determined by the refusal of the voters to enact any laws that would protect slave property. It was unpopular with Southerners, and thus cost him the election., claimed slavery could only exist when popular sovereignty said so
Primary cause of Civil War (maintain the union)
1)slavery debate, 2)Dred Scott decision, 3)John Brown's raid, 4)Uncle Tom's Cabin, 5)Election of Lincoln, The primary cause was to preserve the union and the counrty as a whole. Contrary to popular belief, the issue of slavery was not an intitial factor. It did, although give the north a moral cause toward the end of the war.
Emancipation Proclamation, 1863 - gave North the moral high ground, calculated to win support of Britain & France)
consists of two executive orders issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. The first one, issued on September 22, 1862, declared the freedom of all slaves in any state of the Confederate States of America as did not return to Union control by January 1, 1863, and the second one, issued on January 1, 1863, enumerated the specific states where it applied., stated that all slaves in states currently under rebellion were free, did not free any slave in the north, and did not free any slave in the confederate states already under union control like tennessee
Radical Reconstruction
Was a period in United States history, 1863-1877, that resolved the issues of the American Civil War when both the Confederacy and its system of slavery were destroyed, Reconstruction strategy that was based on severely punishing South for causing war, when the republicans, who had control in both houses of congress, took charge of reconstruction
Compromise of 1877 (ends Reconstruction in South)
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river, Unwritten deal that settled the 1876 presidential election contest between Rutherford Hayes (Rep) and Samuel Tilden (Dem.) Hayes was awarded the presidency in exchange for the permanent removal of federal troops from the South.
Knights of Labor
Labor union founded by Uriah S. Stephens in 1869, that grew out of the collapse of the National Labor Union and was replaced by AF of L after a number of botched strikes, 1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed
Dawes Act, 1887 (assimilate Indians into mainstream America = kill tribal identity)
dissolved many tribes as legal entities, wiped out tribal ownership of land, and set up individual Indian family heads with 160 free acres. If the Indians behaved like "good white settlers" then they would get full title to their holdings as well as citizenship. The Dawes Act attempted to assimilate the Indians with the white men. The Dawes Act remained the basis of the government's official Indian policy until the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934.
Social Gospel
A movement in the late 1800s / early 1900s which emphasized charity and social responsibility as a means of salvation, taught religion and human dignity would help the middle class over come problems of industrialization, Movement led by Washington Gladden, the idea that churches should address social issues, predicting that socialism would be the logical outcome of Christianity
Populists - farmers' party, wanted "free silver"
formed by farmers, wanted a reduced tariff, a graduated income tax, government control of the railroads, extension of the money supply (free silver), included Blacks (which hurt them), wanted direct election of senators and an 8hr working day
Yellow Press (Hearst, Pulitzer - called for war with Spain. "Remember the 'Maine'")
also called yellow journalism, a term used to describe the sensationalist newspaper writings of the time of the Spanish American war. They were written on cheap yellow paper. The most famous yellow journalist was William Randolph Hearst. Yellow journalism was considered tainted journalism - omissions and half-truths., newspapers that used sensational headlines and exaggerated stories in order to promote readership
"New Immigration" - from SE Europe, after Civil War (Gilded Age)
The second major wave of immigration to the U.S.; betwen 1865-1910, 25 million new immigrants arrived. Unlike earlier immigration, which had come primarily from Western and Northern Europe, the New Immigrants came mostly from Southern and Eastern Europe, fleeing persecution and poverty. Language barriers and cultural differences produced mistrust by Americans.
Open Door Policy (open access to China for Am investment)
a policy, proposed by the United States in 1899, under which all nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China, Hay's idea that the great powers would respect the territorial and commercial integrity of China
Du Bois & Booker T. Washington
Dubois:Another African American advocate for social equality, established the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People , 1st african american to graduate from harvard
,Booker T washington: Prominent black American, born into slavery, who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society, was head of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881. His book "Up from Slavery."
Muckrakers (Sinclair Lewis, Mother Jones)
This term applies to newspaper reporters and other writers who pointed out the social problems of the era of big business. The term was first given to them by Theodore Roosevelt., A group of investigative reporters who pointed out the abuses of big business and the corruption of urban politics; included Frank Norris (The Octopus) Ida Tarbell (A history of the standard oil company) Lincoln Steffens (the shame of the cities) and Upton Sinclair (The Jungle)
Germany's unrestricted submarine warfare
germany attacked unarmed american passenger ships over and over again, which was one of the main causes of WWI, A major factor in the decision of the US to enter WWI, Germany took calculated risk resuming unrestricted submarine warfare leading to US participation in WWI
Wilson's 14 Points (Article X). Wilson lost vote in Senate 'cos he wouldn't compromise on wording. Senate didn't want US totally tied to L of N charter)
January 8,1918. Was a set of idealistic goals for peace. 1. no more secret treaties 2. freedom of the seas was to be maintained 3. a removal of economic barriers among nations4. reduction of arms 5, adjustment of cononial claims in the interests of natives and colonizers 6. "self determination" or independence for oppressed minority groups who would choose their govt 7. a legue of nations, an international organization that would keep the peace and sttle world disputes
Bonus Army, 1932 (give us our bonus, now)
group of jobless World War I veterans who came to Washington to lobby Congress for immediate payment of money promised them in 1945; Hoover opposed payment, and when he used the U.S. Army to drive the veterans out of the capital, he was portrayed as cruel and cold-hearted.
100 Day Congress, New Deal
The New Deal is a series of economic programs implemented in the United States between 1933 and 1936. They were passed by the U.S. Congress during the first term of Franklin Delano Roosevelt as President of the United States, which lasted from 1933 to 1937. The programs were responses to the Great Depression, and focused on what historians call theBrown .v. Board of Education (overturned old Plessy .v. Ferguson)
"3 Rs": relief, recovery, and reform. That is, relief for the unemployed and poor; recovery of the economy to normal levels; and reform of the financial system to prevent a repeat depression. The New Deal produced a political realignment, making the Democratic Party the majority
Civilian Conservation Corps
Relief: (CCC) March 31, 1933; reduced poverty/unemployment, helped young men and families; young men go to rural camps for 6 months to do construction work; $1/day; intended to help youth escape cities; concerned with soil erosion, state/national parks, telephone/power lines; 40 hr weeks, New Deal program that hired unemployed men to work on natural conservation projects
Cuban Missile Crisis
an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.
Brown .v. Board of Education (overturned old Plessy .v. Ferguson)
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated., This decision said that separate but equal was ILLEGAL because it violated the 14th Amendment
Sputnik, 1957 ~ arms & space race, & education receives greater emphasis in US
was the world's first Earth-orbiting artificial satellite. It circled the earth in 96.2 minutes. Launched into a low altitude eliptical orbit by the Soviet Union on October 4, 1957, it was the first in a series of satellites collectively known as the Sputnik program. The unanticipated announcement of Sputnik 1's success precipitated the Sputnik crisis in the United States and ignited the Space Race within the Cold War
Sit-Ins, 1960, Greensboro, NC (seeking integration of public facilities)
Greensboro, NC - 4 students defy segregation, sit at segregated lunch counters in department store, then more show up, 4th day 300 show up; they are arrested and beat; continues until they allow it..it spread to other cities (FSU and famu even took part here)
Civil Rights Acts 1960, 1964
investigative of anti-black voting laws but did not secure enfranchisement, changing government view of race relations, 2 civil rights laws that provided protections of civil rights and formation of the Civil Rights Commission, eisenhower signed, commission on civil rights to attempt to guarantee the ballot to blacks; showed government's changing views of race relations
Malcolm "X"
1952; renamed himself X to signify the loss of his African heritage; converted to Nation of Islam in jail in the 50s, became Black Muslims' most dynamic street orator and recruiter; his beliefs were the basis of a lot of the Black Power movement built on seperationist and nationalist impulsesto achieve true independence and equality
Gulf of Tonkin Incident (& Resolution - gave LBJ a free hand to escalate Vietnam War)
the questionable exchange of fire between US ships and the North Vietnamese gave President Johnson the excuse he needed to get Congrssional approval for the use of military power in the region, an alleged attack by N. Vietnamese Navy on US destroyers which led Pres. Johnson to order a direct bombing attack on North Vietnam(most historians now believe there was no attack)
1972; Nixon feared loss so he approved the Commission to Re-Elect the President to spy on and espionage the Democrats. A security gaurd foiled an attempt to bug the Democratic National Committe Headquarters, exposing the scandal. Seemingly contained, after the election Nixon was impeached and stepped down
Tet Offensive, 1968
NLF attacked numerous South Vietnamese cities and American embassies, eventually repulsed; spoiled LBJ's record to reelection, resulted in massive protests in US to end the war; atrocities such that war could only end in stalemate, series of Communist attacks on 44 South Vietnamese cities; although the Viet Cong suffered a major defeat, the attacks ended the American view that the war was winnable and destroyed the nation's will to escalate the war further.
Camp David Accords (Carter, Begin & Sadat, peace in Middle East)
(1978) were negotiated at the presidential retreat of Camp David by Egypt's Anwar Sadat and Israel Menachem Begin; they were brokered by U.S. President Jimmy Carter. They led to a peace treaty the next year that returned the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt, guaranteed Israeli access to the Red Sea and Suez Canal, and more-or-less normalized diplomatic and economic relations between the two countries. This isolated Egypt from the other Arab countries and led to Sadat's assassination in 1981.