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49 terms

brain structure/function

STUDY
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choroid plexus
produces CSF
1. allows faster nutrient delivery to the inside of the brain
2. shock absorbtion
ventricles
lateral-sep. by the septum pellucidum
interventricular foramen
links lateral and third ventricles
cerebral aqeduct
links 3rd and 4th ventricles
4th ventricle
continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord
CSF
produced in the choroid plexus
-used to suspend all organs of the CNS
-produced by epindymal cells
frontal lobe
-voluntary motor function motivation, aggression, mood
-largest lobe of the brain
-higher congnitive functions: (ex: attention/ thought, voluntary movement, decision making, planning, language, problem solving
cognitive disorders associated with frontal lobe damage
paralysis
-mood change
-inability to express lang (Broca's region)
-atypical social skills
-ADHD
precentral gyrus
voluntary motor signals
-houses the premotor cortex
topographic organization
cell bodies for specific parts of the body are topographically organized
-larger area=finer movements
-the area devoted to a particular region-proportional to the senstivity and motor control of that area
Broca's region
ability to express language
(located in the frontal lobe)
Wernicke's region
ability to comprehend language (located in temporal lobe)
parietal lobe
sensory info (primarly touch)
-primary somatosensory cortex (post-central gyrus)
-integrates info from different sensory modalities to build a 3D picture of the world
-processes intentional awareness of the enviorment
primary somatsensory cortex
-post-central gyrus
-pain, pressure, temparture, vibration
-thalamic neurons project to the cortex
assoc. disorders with the parietal lobe
hemispatial neglect- individuals not aware of people, objects, or even one's own body on the side opp. where the damage has occurred
temporal lobe
processes auditory information
-perception of language (Wernike's region)
-face recongition,
-object recognition, and emotional reaction
problems involving damage to the auditory cortex/ temporal lobe
persistent talking
-aggression
-increased/ decreased interest in sexual behavior
occipital lobe
processes visual information
-primary visual cortex-located here
primary visual cortex
located in the occipital lobe
-receies projections from retina (via LGN and superior colliculous)
-different groups of neurons within the visual cortex encode different visual info (ex: color, orientation)
disorders assoc with occipital lobe
snyesthesia: info from different senses are blended
-color snyesthesia- (letters and #'s are percieved as diff. colors: a ltetter or # reps. a diff. color)
-blindness
-visual hallucinations
diencephalon
1. thalamus
2. hypothalamus
3.pitutary gland
thalamus
-filters out sensory info so the sensory cortex doesn't get too overloaded
-relays and processes sensory info b/w spinal cord and cerebrum
(fianl destination for sensory info-post-central gyrus)
-final relay pt. for sensory info with a destination in the primary motor cortex
pituitary gland
-major endocrine galnd
-connected to the hypothalamus via. the infudibulum
-interface b/w the nervous and endocrine systems
infundibulum
stalk that connects pituitary gland and hypothalamus
hypothalamus
-recieves input form multiple sources
-control center for the brain
-regulates a wide range of behavior and physological activities and releases hormones into the blood stream
hypothalamus functions
-master control gland
-hunger/feeding
-thirst
-temp.
-sexual activity
-parenting behavior
-perspiration (as you sweat, your body becomes hypertonic, so hypothalamus resolves it by keeping the ionic environment normal so you become thirsty)
-blood pressure
-heart rate
conditions assos. with damage to one or more thalamic nuclei
-difficulty speaking
-sleepiness
-impaired processing sensory info
-impaired movements and psture
LGN
-lateral geniculate nuclei-relay center for visual info
-a sub-thalamic nucleus
MGN
-medial geniculate nuclei
-relay center for auditory info
damges to the hypothalamus
-aggression, hypothermia, self-mutilation, and weight gain/ loss
corpora quadigemina
superior and inferior colliculi
inferior colliculus
involved in processing and transmitting auditory info to the auditory cortex
superior colliculous
processing and transmitting visual info
maillary bodies
involved in olaction and emotional responses to odor
cerebral peduncles
contain desceding fibers that go towards the cerebellum via the pons and descending fibers that carry voluntary motor info. to the cerebellum
limbic system
-"emotional center"
-includes olfactory cortex (temporal lobe)
-amygdala
-cingulate cortex
-hippocampus
-hypothalamus
-white matter tracts that connect cerebrum to diencephalon
amygdala
-part of the limbic system
-"fear center"
functions of the limbic syst.
-est. emotional states (fear, anger, pleasure, sorrow)
-processing smells
-memory formation
-sexual arousal
-makes you want to perform complex tasks
conditions ass. w/ damage to thalamic nuclei
-depression
-olfactory impairments
-uncontrolled emotions
-memory impairments
hippocampus
resp. for short-term memory formation and. temp. storage for long-term memories
basal nuclei
-carries out movements in a continuated smooth matter
-coordinates muscles contraction
neural plasticity
-the ability of the nervous system to be modified after birth
-flexibility of the brain/tendency to change synapses
memory
-physical change in the structure of a synapse
-the more you stimulate, the more you learn
major regions of the brain
1. cerebrum
2. diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus, pineal gland)
3. midbrain
4. pons
5. medulla oblongata
7. cerebellum
brain stem
1. midbrain
2. pons
3. medulla oblongata
midbrain
-processes visual and auditory info. and generates involuntary motor responses
-also contains centers to help maintain consiousness
pons
-bridge that connects the cerebellum to the brain stem
-bridge that relays info from the cerebellum and cerebrum and cereburm and medulla oblongata (b/c hypothalamus is in the cerebrum)
-contains nuclei that are involved in somatic and visceral motor control
medulla oblongata
-part of the brain that is attached to the spinal cored
-relays sensory info to the thalamus and other brain centers
-contains centers that regulate autonomic functions (ex: heart rate, BP, respiration, and digestive tract)
cerebellum
adjusts voluntary and involuntary motor activity