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choroid plexus

produces CSF
1. allows faster nutrient delivery to the inside of the brain
2. shock absorbtion


lateral-sep. by the septum pellucidum

interventricular foramen

links lateral and third ventricles

cerebral aqeduct

links 3rd and 4th ventricles

4th ventricle

continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord


produced in the choroid plexus
-used to suspend all organs of the CNS
-produced by epindymal cells

frontal lobe

-voluntary motor function motivation, aggression, mood
-largest lobe of the brain
-higher congnitive functions: (ex: attention/ thought, voluntary movement, decision making, planning, language, problem solving

cognitive disorders associated with frontal lobe damage

-mood change
-inability to express lang (Broca's region)
-atypical social skills

precentral gyrus

voluntary motor signals
-houses the premotor cortex

topographic organization

cell bodies for specific parts of the body are topographically organized
-larger area=finer movements
-the area devoted to a particular region-proportional to the senstivity and motor control of that area

Broca's region

ability to express language
(located in the frontal lobe)

Wernicke's region

ability to comprehend language (located in temporal lobe)

parietal lobe

sensory info (primarly touch)
-primary somatosensory cortex (post-central gyrus)
-integrates info from different sensory modalities to build a 3D picture of the world
-processes intentional awareness of the enviorment

primary somatsensory cortex

-post-central gyrus
-pain, pressure, temparture, vibration
-thalamic neurons project to the cortex

assoc. disorders with the parietal lobe

hemispatial neglect- individuals not aware of people, objects, or even one's own body on the side opp. where the damage has occurred

temporal lobe

processes auditory information
-perception of language (Wernike's region)
-face recongition,
-object recognition, and emotional reaction

problems involving damage to the auditory cortex/ temporal lobe

persistent talking
-increased/ decreased interest in sexual behavior

occipital lobe

processes visual information
-primary visual cortex-located here

primary visual cortex

located in the occipital lobe
-receies projections from retina (via LGN and superior colliculous)
-different groups of neurons within the visual cortex encode different visual info (ex: color, orientation)

disorders assoc with occipital lobe

snyesthesia: info from different senses are blended
-color snyesthesia- (letters and #'s are percieved as diff. colors: a ltetter or # reps. a diff. color)
-visual hallucinations


1. thalamus
2. hypothalamus
3.pitutary gland


-filters out sensory info so the sensory cortex doesn't get too overloaded
-relays and processes sensory info b/w spinal cord and cerebrum
(fianl destination for sensory info-post-central gyrus)
-final relay pt. for sensory info with a destination in the primary motor cortex

pituitary gland

-major endocrine galnd
-connected to the hypothalamus via. the infudibulum
-interface b/w the nervous and endocrine systems


stalk that connects pituitary gland and hypothalamus


-recieves input form multiple sources
-control center for the brain
-regulates a wide range of behavior and physological activities and releases hormones into the blood stream

hypothalamus functions

-master control gland
-sexual activity
-parenting behavior
-perspiration (as you sweat, your body becomes hypertonic, so hypothalamus resolves it by keeping the ionic environment normal so you become thirsty)
-blood pressure
-heart rate

conditions assos. with damage to one or more thalamic nuclei

-difficulty speaking
-impaired processing sensory info
-impaired movements and psture


-lateral geniculate nuclei-relay center for visual info
-a sub-thalamic nucleus


-medial geniculate nuclei
-relay center for auditory info

damges to the hypothalamus

-aggression, hypothermia, self-mutilation, and weight gain/ loss

corpora quadigemina

superior and inferior colliculi

inferior colliculus

involved in processing and transmitting auditory info to the auditory cortex

superior colliculous

processing and transmitting visual info

maillary bodies

involved in olaction and emotional responses to odor

cerebral peduncles

contain desceding fibers that go towards the cerebellum via the pons and descending fibers that carry voluntary motor info. to the cerebellum

limbic system

-"emotional center"
-includes olfactory cortex (temporal lobe)
-cingulate cortex
-white matter tracts that connect cerebrum to diencephalon


-part of the limbic system
-"fear center"

functions of the limbic syst.

-est. emotional states (fear, anger, pleasure, sorrow)
-processing smells
-memory formation
-sexual arousal
-makes you want to perform complex tasks

conditions ass. w/ damage to thalamic nuclei

-olfactory impairments
-uncontrolled emotions
-memory impairments


resp. for short-term memory formation and. temp. storage for long-term memories

basal nuclei

-carries out movements in a continuated smooth matter
-coordinates muscles contraction

neural plasticity

-the ability of the nervous system to be modified after birth
-flexibility of the brain/tendency to change synapses


-physical change in the structure of a synapse
-the more you stimulate, the more you learn

major regions of the brain

1. cerebrum
2. diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus, pineal gland)
3. midbrain
4. pons
5. medulla oblongata
7. cerebellum

brain stem

1. midbrain
2. pons
3. medulla oblongata


-processes visual and auditory info. and generates involuntary motor responses
-also contains centers to help maintain consiousness


-bridge that connects the cerebellum to the brain stem
-bridge that relays info from the cerebellum and cerebrum and cereburm and medulla oblongata (b/c hypothalamus is in the cerebrum)
-contains nuclei that are involved in somatic and visceral motor control

medulla oblongata

-part of the brain that is attached to the spinal cored
-relays sensory info to the thalamus and other brain centers
-contains centers that regulate autonomic functions (ex: heart rate, BP, respiration, and digestive tract)


adjusts voluntary and involuntary motor activity

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