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Each muscle begins at an...?


Each muscle ends at an... ?


Each muscle contracts to produce.... ?


Muscle cells contain contractible units that are called... ?


Which type of muscle helps to pump blood into the arteries?

Smooth muscle

What is hypertrophy?

The growth in size of muscle cells.

What is atrophy?

When the muscle cells shrink.

What is adduction?

a type of angular movement in which you are bringing a body part towards your mid line.

What is abduction?

is a type of angular movement in which you are bringing a body part away from your mid line.

What is vertebral foreman?

the holes formed by the arch and body of a single vertebrae through which the spinal cord runs through.

What is intervertebral foramen?

the gaps in between stacked vertebrae through which roots, arteries, and signals can go through to the spinal cord.

In the lungs, oxygen is absorbed into the blood. In which part of the lungs does this mainly happen?


What name is given to the maximum volume of air that can be breathed in or out of the lungs in one breath?

Vital Capacity

Many of the airways in the lungs have goblet cells in their walls. What do these do?

Secrete Mucus

What muscular movements cause air to be drawn into the lungs?

Diaphragm and External Intercostal muscles contract

Which blood vessels carry deoxygenated blood towards the lungs?

Pulmonary Arteries

What is the function of surfactant in the lungs?

To prevent the Alveoli collapsing

Some of the airways are reinforced by cartilage, and this helps to keep the airways open. Which airways are reinforced in this way?

Trachea and Bronchi

What is the correct description of the epithelium of the alveoli?


Smokers may develop a condition known as emphysema. What is this?

Breakdown of the alveolar walls

Cystic fibrosis is an inherited lung disorder, where the sufferer is unable to transport ions across cell membranes. Which ions cannot be transported?


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