52 terms

HO2 - Blood

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(Erythrocytes/Thrombocytes/Leukocytes) refer to anucleate, biconcave cells. These cells possess large surface area-to-volume ratio for rapid gas exchange and have a life expectancy of 120 days. Their primary energy source is glucose, and they serve to transport oxygen to tissues and CO2 from the periphery to the lungs for elimination.
Erythrocytes (Red blood cells)
(Erythrocytes/Thrombocytes/Leukocytes) refer to small cytoplasmic fragments derived from megakaryocytes. They typically have a lifespan of 7-12 days. Upon endothelial injury, they become activated, aggregate with other cells of their kind, and interact with fibrinogen to form plugs and clots. They possess dense granules that contain ADP and calcium, along with α granules that contain von Willebrand factor and fibrinogen. δ granules and λ granules (lysosomes) are present as well. Approximately 1/3rd of this cell population is found in the spleenen*.
Thrombocytes (Platelets)
(Erythrocytes/Thrombocytes/Leukocytes) are responsible for defense against infections. There are typically 4,000-10,000 cells/mm^3 in the blood. This cell group is composed of granulocyte and agranulocyte divisions.
Leukocytes (White blood cells)
What are the two types of white blood cells/leukocytes?
-Granulocytes
-Agranulocytes
What are the three types of granular leukocyte?
I. Neutrophil (Polymorphonuclear leukocytes or PMNs)
II. Eosinophil
III. Basophil
What are the two types of agranular leukocyte?
I. Lymphocyte
II. Monocyte
Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils are examples of (granular/agranular) leukocytes.
Granular
Lymphocytes and monocytes are examples of (granular/agranular) leukocytes.
Agranular
What area of the centrifuge will erythrocytes be spun down to? White blood cells and thrombocytes?
(Eosinophils/Basophils/Neutrophils) are the acute inflammatory response cells of the body. They are markedly increased in bacterial infections and carry out immune functions via phagocytosis. They possess a multilobed nucleus and contain numerous, small granules filled with ALP, collagenase, lysozyme, and lactoferrin. They also possess larger, less numerous azurophilic granules (lysosomes) that contain proteinases, acid phosphatase, myeloperoxidase, and β-glucuronidase. They typically survive for hours to days*.
Neutrophils
(Neutrophils/Eosinophils/Basophils) possess a bilobate nucleus and are packed with large eosinophilic granules containing a crystalline core of major basic protein, giving them a pink appearance on stains. They are highly phagocytic for antigen-antibody complexes, and are typically the first line defenders against helminthic infections (worm-like). They are also sources of histaminase and arylsulfatase, enzymes that help to limit reaction following mast cell degranulation. They typically survive for 8-12 days.
Eosinophils
Under what conditions are eosinophils elevated?
Neoplasia
Asthma
Allergic processes
Connective tissue diseases
Parasites (invasive)

NAACP
(Neutrophils/Eosinophils/Basophils) mediate allergic reactions. They contain densely basophilic granules (stain blue) that are packed with heparin (anticoagulant), histamine (vasodilator), prostaglandins, chemotactic factors for the attraction of eosinophils and neutrophils, platelet-activating factor, and leukotrienes that are used to cause bronchoconstriction, increased mucus production, and increased vascular permeability. Often these granules are so densely packed that the nucleus is not visible on microscopic inspection. They typically survive for the longest amount of time out of the granular leukocytes, but are particularly rare.
Basophils
(Lymphocytes/Monocytes) are further divided into B cells, T cells, and NK cells. This group of cells is a mediator of adaptive immunity and part of the innate immune response. They are characterized by round, densely staining nuclei with a small amount of pale cytoplasm at the periphery.
Lymphocytes
(Lymphocytes/Monocytes) differentiate into macrophages once inside tissues. They possess large, kidney-shaped nuclei and an extensive "frosted glass" cytoplasm. They typically only survive for a few months.
Monocytes
What is the makeup of the white blood cell population in the blood, from highest percentage present in circulation to lowest?
Neutrophil (54-62%)
Lymphocytes (25-33%)
Monocytes (3-7%)
Eosinophils (1-3%)
Basophils (0-0.75%)

Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas
Sickle cell anemia results from a substitution mutation in which ____________ is exchanged for a ___________ residue, resulting in abnormal hemoglobin. This results in erythrocytes that are no longer malleable or able to bend, causing the collecting of erythrocytes and occlusion and blockage of vessels.
Glutamate exchanged for Valine
Sickle cell mutations in the hemoglobin genome are found at the (3rd/4th/5th/6th/7th/8th/9th) amino acid residue.
6th
_____________ is a protein within erythrocytes that forms a hexagonal latticework that is anchored to the plasma membrane by band 4.2, band 3, and ankyrin.
Spectrin
Spectrin is a protein within erythrocytes that forms a hexagonal latticework that is anchored to the plasma membrane by ____________, ____________, and _____________.
Band 4.2
Band 3
Ankyrin
(T/F) Anemia may also result from mutations in the latticework protein, Spectrin.
True.
(Iron deficiency anemia/Pernicious anemia/Sickle cell anemia/Hereditary spherocytosis/β-thalassemia) is characterized by the impaired production of red blood cells resulting from vitamin B12 deficiency, usually due to inadequate synthesis of intrinsic factor.
Pernicious anemia
(Iron deficiency anemia/Pernicious anemia/Sickle cell anemia/Hereditary spherocytosis/β-thalassemia) is characterized by impaired hemoglobin (Hb) production resulting from low iron intake, chronic blood loss, or increased demand for iron (e.g., in pregnancy).
Iron deficiency anemia
(Iron deficiency anemia/Pernicious anemia/Sickle cell anemia/Hereditary spherocytosis/β-thalassemia) is characterized by various mutations in the hemoglobin β-chain, causing decreased globulin production, dysfunctional erythrocyte morphology, and short-lived red blood cells. This condition is autosomal recessive (heterozygotes are asymptomatic or show mild disease).
β-thalassemia
(Iron deficiency anemia/Pernicious anemia/Sickle cell anemia/Hereditary spherocytosis/β-thalassemia) is characterized by mutations in spectrin, causing defects in the erythrocyte cell membrane. This condition is autosomal dominant.
Hereditary spherocytosis
(Iron deficiency anemia/Pernicious anemia/Sickle cell anemia/Hereditary spherocytosis/β-thalassemia) is characterized by production of abnormal hemogloblin (HbS) resulting from a substitution mutation that exchanges glutamate for valine. This condition is autosomal recessive (heterozygotes are usually asymptomatic).
Sickle cell anemia
(T/F) Platelets have nuclei.
False. Platelets have no nuclei.
Neutrophils constitute ___% of the leukocytes in circulation.
70%
What type of cell is shown in the following image?
What type of cell is shown in the following image?
What type of cell is shown in the following image?
What type of cell is shown in the following image?
What type of cell is shown in the following image?
What type of cell is shown in the following image?
What type of cell is shown in the following image?
What type of cell is shown in the following image?
What type of cell is shown in the following image?
What type of cell is shown in the following image?
(Helper/Cytotoxic) T cells originate from bone marrow, but mature in the thymus. These cells are part of the cellular immune response and are responsible for the destruction of cells bearing endogenous antigens. They express CD3 and CD8 on their surface and recognize class I of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC I).
Cytotoxic

MHC I x CD8 = 8
MHC II x CD4 = 8
(Helper/Cytotoxic) T cells originate from bone marrow, but mature in the thymus. These cells are part of the cellular immune response and are responsible for the secretion of cytokines that regulate the intensity and duration of immune responses. They express CD3 and CD4 on their surface and recognize class II of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC II).
Helper (Th)

MHC I x CD8 = 8
MHC II x CD4 = 8
(T/B/NK) cells are part of the humoral immune response and arise from stem cells and mature in the bone marrow. Upon encountering an antigen, these cells differentiate into antibody-producing plasma cells or antigen-memorizing memory cells. They may also serve as antigen-presenting cells (APCs), processing and presenting exogenous antigens to Th cells via MHC II.
B cells
(T/B/NK) cells are the only lymphocyte member of the innate immune response. They utilize perforin and granzymes in order to induce nonspecific apoptosis of virally infected cells and tumor cells. These cells are activated by the absence of MHC I on target cell surfaces, or by CD16 on the target cell which binds to the Fc region of a bound immunoglobulin, triggering the cell's cytotoxic response.
NK (Natural Killer) cells
(Macrophages/Mast cells/Dendritic cells/Plasma cells) are the main cells responsible for the phagocytosis of bacteria, cellular debris, and senescent red blood cells. They are differentiated from monocytes and have a very long life in tissues. These cells become activated in the presence of γ-interferon and can serve as APCs via MHC II. The primary cell surface marker for this cell type is CD14*.
Macrophages
(Macrophages/Mast cells/Dendritic cells/Plasma cells) are highly phagocytic APCs that function as a link between innate and adaptive immunity. These cells express MHC II and Fc receptors on their surface. They are referred to as Langerhans cells when present in the epidermis.
Dendritic cells
(Macrophages/Mast cells/Dendritic cells/Plasma cells) mediate allergic reactions in local tissue. These cells resemble basophils structurally and functionally but are not the same cell type. This type of cell binds the Fc portion of IgE to its membrane. Upon cross-linking of IgE, degranulation results, causing a massive release of histamine, heparin, and eosinophil chemotactic factors. These cells are the culprits involved in type I hypersensitivity reactions.
Mast cells
(Macrophages/Mast cells/Dendritic cells/Plasma cells) produce large amounts of antibody specific to a particular antigen. They possess an eccentric nucleus, clock-face chromatin distribution, abundant RER, and a well-developed Golgi apparatus.
Plasma cells
(Neutrophil/Eosinophil/Basophil) granules appear dark blue to black on a Giemsa or Wright stain.
Basophil
(Neutrophil/Eosinophil/Basophil) granules appear dusty rose-colored on a Giemsa or Wright stain.
Neutrophil
(Neutrophil/Eosinophil/Basophil) granules appear red to orange on a Giemsa or Wright stain.
Eosinophil
(T/F) Basophils possess phagocytic activity.
False. Basophils have no phagocytic activity.
(Neutrophils/Eosinophils/Basophils) possess the largest amount of azurophilic granules within their cytoplasm.
Neutrophils
Neutrophils use the free radical _______ to destroy phagocytosed bacteria.
H2O2