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67 terms

Midterm chapters 1-8

STUDY
PLAY
Data mining
The process by which great amounts of data are analyzed and investigated to spot significant patterns or trends within the data that would otherwise not be obvious.
computer literate
Being familiar enough with computers that you understand their capabilities and limitations and know how to use them
PDA
personal digital assistants- A small device that enables a user to carry digital information. Often called palm computers or handhelds, PDAs are about the size of a hand and usually weigh less than 5 ounces. Can use with a stylus or keyboard (built in or pulg in)
computer forensics
The application of computer systems and techniques to gather potential legal evidence; a law enforcement specialty used to fight high-tech crime.
RFID
Radio frequency identity tag, can be used to track where you are at a specfic time (ex- toll tag)
Patient Simulators
A computer-controlled mannequin that simulates human body functions and reactions. Patient simulators are used in training doctors, nurses, and emergency services personnel by simulating dangerous situations that would normally put live patients at risk.
nanotechnology
The science revolving around the use of nanostructures to build devices on an extremely small scale.Carbon to be possible building blocks
digital home
A home that has a computer(s) and other digital devices that are all connected to a home network.
information
Data that has been organized or presented in a meaningful fashion ( when data that has been collected becomes useful.. ex. phone number to a name)
input devices
A hardware device used to enter, or input, data (text, images, and sounds) and instructions (user responses and commands) into a computer; input devices include keyboards and mice.
binary
to process information computers need to communicate in a language they understand (0 or 1) these are called the digit (bits combine to become one byte.
output devices
A device that sends processed data and information out of a computer in the form of text, pictures (graphics), sounds (audio), or video. , how machines give us feedback; printer, speakers, monitor
system unit
The metal or plastic case that holds all the physical parts of the computer together, including the computer's processor (its brains), its memory, and the many circuit boards that help the computer function.
peripheral devices
A device such as a monitor, printer, or keyboard that connects to the system unit through ports.
internet
A network of networks and the largest network in the world, connecting millions of computers from more than 100 countries
Advanced Research Projects Agency
Founded by Robert Kahn & Vinton Cerf
Modern internet evolved from an early US gov't funded internetworking project. Began w/ Standford, Uof Cali S.B., U of Utah SLC and UCLa`
Internet communications
IM, blogs, e-mail
podcasts
clip of audio or video content that is broadcasted over internet using compressed files (ex. MP3's; can be used to listen to radio shows, audio books, etc.) can be transfered to portable devices
Aggregator is needed to listen to it
Used RSS technology in XML format to find constant updates
webcast
An event that broadcasts the audio and/or video portion of a keynote presentation or other educational sessions over the Web in real-time or on-demand, NOt updated automatically
Wiki
is a type of website that allows users to change its content by adding removing or editing, also allow access to past revisions so you can keep track of them
voice over internet protocol
a method for taking analog audio signals, like the kind you hear when you talk on the phone, and turning them into digital data that can be transmitted over the internet
B2B
Business to business ;this e commerce consists of businesses buying and selling to goods and services to other businesses
cookies
small text files that some websites store in your computer's hard drive when you visit the site (assigns an ID number to make your return more efficent to the site ex. storing pass words)
spyware
piggyback program that downloads itself w/software you want to install from net & runs in background of computer (ex. trojan viruses and keystroke loggers
URL
uniform resource locator,, unique address that allows you to access a website. must begin with hypertext transfer protocol
search engine
a set of programs that use the web to search for specific key words you wish to query and returns a list of sites that contain that word. Can be used to find:podcasts, images, and video and not just traditional text based sites
fiber optic
internet connection technology that uses plastic or glass cables that transfer data at the speed of light
system software
the set of programs that enables a computer's hardware devices and application software to work together; it includes the operating system and utility programs
application software
set of programs used on a computer to help carry out tasks such as writing a research paper. (typing documents, create a spreadsheet, or edit a photo)
spreadsheet software
Software that allows the user to add, subtract, and perform calculations on rows and columns of numbers. MS-Excel would be an example of this.
presentation software
create types of dynamic slide show; aids in making high quality slide shows w/o a lot of training
database software
complex electronic filing system that is a fully featured database application that manages larger and more complicated group, sort, and retrieve data to generate reports (ex. fed ex tracking for customers)
course management software
online course run through this. provide traditonal classroom tools such as calendars and grade books over the internet. other areas include (posting assignments, communication student to teacher, lectures , etc.)
business accounting software
aids small businesses in keeping good records and tracking of expenses and income. (payables, recieveables, inventory management, payroll EX- Quickboks and Peachtree
freeware
copywrighted software that you can use for free. some want fee back on the product others allow you to make changes to it also
shareware
allows its users to test the software free first before buying it. (fully functional but will expire unless purchased.)
PDF
portable document format- file format you creat with Adobe Acrobat or Cutepdf to transform any file into a document that can be shared, viewed or printed by anyone who has Reader.
Computer Aided Design Software
CAD- 3d modeling that engineers use to create automated designs, drawlings and models
Web page authoring software
allows the design of web pages without knowing the hyper text markup language codes.
software license
legal contract that outlines the acceptable uses of the program and any actions that violate the agreement. (between user and software developer)
software piracy
illegal duplication and distribution of software. has major financial impacts on software application consumers.
operating system
group of programs that controls how the computer system functions. manages computer's hardware and CPU (central processing unit)
device manager
feature in OS that lets you view and change properties of all devices attached to your computer
BIOS
basic input/output system: program that manages the data between the operating system and all the input and output devices attached to the system; also loads OS from permanent location on hard drive into RAM; located in ROM chip on motherboard
graphical user interface
GUI-interface that displays graphics and use the point and click technology of mouse and cursor to make more user friendly (uses: windows, menus, and icons desktop appearences)
device driver
each device on computer comes with this special program that facilitates the communication between the hardware device and the OS. (translates devices specialized commands to commands the OS can understand)
disk cleanup
window utility that cleans or removes unnecessary files from hard drive. (files in recycle bin, temp files)
disk defragmenter
regroups related pieces of files on hard disk allowing OS to work more efficiently.
Password rules
should contain 14 symbols; not single word or found in dictionary;combination of several words with uppercase letters;not easily associated with you; use different password for each system or website; never tell anyone your password or write it down; change if someone knows it;check strength of pass word
text messaging
SMS-short message service is technology that allows you to send short text msgs over moblie devices ( you can also send them from computer to moblie devices
ROM
read only memory (in cellphones stored OS is stored here bc phones would be useless without it) allows data to be stored with phone or computer is off
hard drive
have strongest storage compacaity of any storage device. offers most gigabyte storage per dollar so it makes it the most economical. Also fastest access time to locate stored data also fastest permanent storage device (measured in miliseconds
USB
universal serial bus- most popular port on computers offers data transfer speed of 480mps
ethernet port
Rj-45 jack- used to connect computer to local network or cable modem, most standard use in most personal computers
network
two or more computers that are connected via software and hardware so that they can communicate with each other. Nodes are the devices connected to the network. Main focus is to facilitate information sharing
router
transfer packets of data between two or more networks. switches help control the traffic of data
network interface card
NICs network adapters installed inside desktops and computers as expansion cards
twisted pair cable
telephone wire that is made of copper wires that are twisted around each other and surrounded by a plastic jacket
cybercrime
criminal action perpetrated primarily through the use of a computer. bc of this computer users must protect themselves
trojan horse virus
program that appears to be something useful or desirable but at the same time does something malicious in the background without your knowledge. Contain hidden surprise, install backdoor programs hackers can take complete control
firewall
programs or hardware designed to keep computers from hackers. you can close open logical ports to invaders and potentially make your computer invisible to other computers on the net.
time bomb virus
viruses that are triggered by the passage of time or a certain date. Michelangelo the most popular set to trigger every year on March 6
polymorphic viruses
change their own code (or rewrite themselves) to avoid detection, normally infect one certain file type
quarantining
antivirus software does this by detecting a virus signature or suspicious activity, stopping its execution and notifying you that it has found a virus. It also places the file in a secure area on your hard drive so the virus wont spread to other files.
smartphone
cell phones that have advanced memory and processing power. can sync home computer with phone (contains CPU, OS, storage capabilities, input and output devices and ports. ) OS is in ROM and data apps in RAM
mobile computing devices
portable electronic tools that allow us to communicate, remain productive,, and access and array of information no matter where we are. EX. cell phones, pda's portable media players, and notebooks
microbrowser
software provides a web browser for moblie devices that optimizies to display web content effectively on a smaller screen and is written in wireless markup language (WML)