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The rate at which velocity changes- FInal Velocity-Initial Velocity/ CHange in Time

Acceleration due to Gravity

If gravity is the only force acting on an object, then we find the object will accelerate at a rate of 9.8m/s2 down toward the center of the Earth (this is often rounded to 10m/s2).

Acetic Acid

Vinegar, when mixed with Sodium Bicarbanate it creates C02, water, Sodium Acetate

Actual Mechanical Advantage

Actual Mechanical Advantage shows how much the machine magnifies an input force taking into consideration the friction in the machine- Divide Force Output by Force Input


Many war machines used in the defense of Syracuse, compound pulley systems, planetarium, water screw (possibly), water organ (possibly), burning mirrors (very unlikely).

Dependent Variable

the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable


Energy is the capacity of a physical system to perform work

Final Velocity

Velocity at Impact- (2) Average Velocity


The capacity to do work or cause physical change F=MA, Force= Mass (Acceleration)


effort expended in rubbing one object against another

Independent Variable

the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied

Isaac Newton

Created the Three Laws of Motion


The amount of work, in units


The weight of the object

Mechanical Efficiency

The mechanical efficiency of a machine describes how well the machine converts work input into work output- Work Output/ Work Input(100), higher the percentage the better


The quantity of motion in an object- Mass (final velocity)


The unit of force required to accelerate a mass of one kilogram one meter per second per second


The study of matter and energy and the interaction of the two


Any object propelled through space by the exertion of a force which ceases after launch.

Reaction Time

The interval of time between application of a stimulus and detection of a response.

Sodium Bicarbonate

Baking Soda, when mixed with Acid Acetic it creates C02, water, Sodium Acetate


The path a moving object takes through space.


The rate of speed


The transfer of energy

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