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Renner Chapter 3


a change in behavior to meet the needs of a changing environment


trying to figure out the meaning of a set of observations

behavioral science

using the scientific method to study human behavior

classical conditioning

a pairing a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus, leading to a response

conscious needs

those needs of which we are aware


the ability to think, do, or see things in a new and different way


refusing to believe something even though it's obvious

developmental psychologist

studies the pyschological changes that occur as we age


acts as a referee between the id and superego


feelings such as love, hate, anger, happiness


feeling as another person does


your surroundings


the passing of traits from parents to children through reporduction


represents our most basic needs


a change in behavior caused by experience

mental set

an expectation of the way things should be or will be


what humans require to survive and grow in a healthy way

negative reinforcement

taking away something unpleasant in order to get a desired behavior (the behavior must come first, though)


watching and writing down facts and events


training a subject to perform a certain action through the use of reinforcers


taking in information from the environment


the combination of hereditary factors, environmental factors, and experience patterns that make us unique individuals

positive reinforcement

giving a reward in order to get a desired behavior (the behavior must come first, though)


projecting one's faults onto someone or something else


the study of how the mind and body work together to create thoughts that lead to actions


making an excuse for an action without realizing the excuse is not the real reason for the action


pushing unpleasant memories into the subconscious


an action caused by a stimulus


becoming the best person you can be


rewarding a subject when the subject performs a behavior that is close to the desired behavior


leads to a response


represents society's teachings regarding right and wrong

trial-and-error learning

trying different ways to solve a problem until one works

unconscious needs

those needs of which we are not fully aware


Austrian psychologist who was one of the first to seriously examine the personality


argued that needs must be met in a certain sequence, or hierarchy

blind self

aspects of yourself that are known to others but not known to you

hidden self

aspects of yourself that are not known to others but are known to you

open self

aspects of yourself that are known to you and known to others

unknown self

aspects of yourself that are not known to you and not known to others

esteem needs/ self esteem

our need to feel competent and confident, and for recognition

social needs

our need to for acceptance, affection

safety and security

our need to feel free from danger; our need for predictability and stability

physical needs

our most basic need for food, water, survival

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