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44 terms

Psychology Review

Renner Chapter 3
STUDY
PLAY
adaptation
a change in behavior to meet the needs of a changing environment
analysis
trying to figure out the meaning of a set of observations
behavioral science
using the scientific method to study human behavior
classical conditioning
a pairing a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus, leading to a response
conscious needs
those needs of which we are aware
creativity
the ability to think, do, or see things in a new and different way
denial
refusing to believe something even though it's obvious
developmental psychologist
studies the pyschological changes that occur as we age
ego
acts as a referee between the id and superego
emotions
feelings such as love, hate, anger, happiness
empathy
feeling as another person does
environment
your surroundings
heredity
the passing of traits from parents to children through reporduction
id
represents our most basic needs
learning
a change in behavior caused by experience
mental set
an expectation of the way things should be or will be
needs
what humans require to survive and grow in a healthy way
negative reinforcement
taking away something unpleasant in order to get a desired behavior (the behavior must come first, though)
observation
watching and writing down facts and events
operant conditioning
training a subject to perform a certain action through the use of reinforcers
perception
taking in information from the environment
personality
the combination of hereditary factors, environmental factors, and experience patterns that make us unique individuals
positive reinforcement
giving a reward in order to get a desired behavior (the behavior must come first, though)
projection
projecting one's faults onto someone or something else
psychology
the study of how the mind and body work together to create thoughts that lead to actions
rationalization
making an excuse for an action without realizing the excuse is not the real reason for the action
repression
pushing unpleasant memories into the subconscious
response
an action caused by a stimulus
self-actualization
becoming the best person you can be
shaping
rewarding a subject when the subject performs a behavior that is close to the desired behavior
stimulus
leads to a response
superego
represents society's teachings regarding right and wrong
trial-and-error learning
trying different ways to solve a problem until one works
unconscious needs
those needs of which we are not fully aware
Freud
Austrian psychologist who was one of the first to seriously examine the personality
Maslow
argued that needs must be met in a certain sequence, or hierarchy
blind self
aspects of yourself that are known to others but not known to you
hidden self
aspects of yourself that are not known to others but are known to you
open self
aspects of yourself that are known to you and known to others
unknown self
aspects of yourself that are not known to you and not known to others
esteem needs/ self esteem
our need to feel competent and confident, and for recognition
social needs
our need to for acceptance, affection
safety and security
our need to feel free from danger; our need for predictability and stability
physical needs
our most basic need for food, water, survival