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Ed Psych 301 Exam 1
Terms in this set (78)
What are the 4 things that a theoretical lens allows for?
1. foregrounds particular issues as warranting attention
2. set out line of inquiry or questions to persue
3. diverts attention towards certain things
4. points to relevant theoretical and empirical work
why is philosophy not a science?
It was not empirical
what was the first attempts to make psychology a science?
made it more empirical-- but relied heavily on introspection which led to biases and a subjective process
what do behaviorists believe?
That we need to stick to what we can actually observe, or behavior
What is the difference between hardcore behaviorists and moderate ones?
the belief that there are no thoughts, beliefs or feelings VERSUS there might be more, but we should focus on what we can observe
what are the assumptions of behaviorism?
ALL NATURE, NO NURTURE!
simpler explanations are better, all behavior is due to learning, everyone is a blank slate and there is equipotentialiity
what is tabula rasa?
blank slate; there are no pre-existing stimulus response associations
through learning and conditioning you can be shaped into anything
what is equipotentiality?
anyone (or any animal) can be conditioned the same way to do the same things
what is a stimulus?
anything in the environment/an environmental change that one can respond to; trigger that comes before and prompts a response
what is a response?
the reaction prompted by a stimulus
how is learning defined by behaviorists?
the relationship between stimuli and responses is not necessarily fixed
learning is a change in observable behavior
what is classical conditioning?
about associated specific stimuli with specific responses
what is conditioning?
forming associations or connecting between experiences and neural impulses
what is an unconditioned stimulus?
something that causes an uncontrollable unconditioned response
what is an unconditioned response?
an involuntary response
what are the NS, UCS, UCR, CS and CR in the Pavlov experiment?
What is generalization?
when learned behaviors are produced in response to other similar stimuli
the more similar the next context, the more likely the old behaviors will be performe
what is discrimination?
when a learner figures out that only certain stimuli should trigger certain responses
what is extinction?
decline of response strength when a behavior is not reinforced; or when the CS is too often presented without the UCS
what is higher order conditioning?
the CR gets linked to a new stimulus by an old stimulus
what is spontaneous recovery?
when a CS and CR occur without retraining
what are limits of conditioning?
timing and sequence are critical
any stimulus cannot be paired equally well with any response
who is Eric Kandel?
Received Nobel Prize in 200 for work on memory and learning in Aplysia
what is operant conditioning?
concerned with effects of consequences on behaviors and based on voluntary responses
what is the ABC model of operant conditioning?
Antecedent -> behavior -> consequence
what is an antecedent?
the environmental cue that preceded or triggers a behavior
what is a behavior?
occurs as a result fo the antecedent
what is a consequence?
what happens after the behavior, to increase or decrease the probability that it will happen again
what are the two types of consequences?
punishment (decreases probability) and reinforcement (increase reinforcement)
what is positive reinforcement?
strengthens a response by presenting a consequence that you like after a response
what is negative reinforcement?
strengthens a response by reducing or removing an aversive stimulus
allows you to either escape or avoid something
what are primary reinforcers?
things that satisfy basic human needs
what are secondary reinforcers?
acquire value by being associated with primary reinforcers
what is positive punishment?
punishment by application; adding something you don't like to decrease the frequency of behavior
what is negative punishment?
punishment by removal; taking away something that you like
what is important to note about punishment?
does not eliminate behavior- simply suppresses it
very common but not very effective
why doesn't punishment work?
doesn't suggest an alternative form of behavior
may withdraw from situation; lead to anger and hostility; model a negative way of problem solving
what is continuous reinforcement?
behavior is followed by consequence every time it occurs
what is intermittent schedule of reinforcement?
behavior is followed by a consequence only after a certain amount of time has passed (interval) or a certain number of times the behaviors is performed (ratio)
what is a fixed interval?
reinforcement after x amount of times
what is a variable interval?
reinforcement after varying amounts of time
what is fixed ratio?
reinforcement after x number of performances
what is variable ratio?
reinforcement after varying amounts of performances
what is the best type of schedule of reinforcement?
intermittent > continuous (except when teaching brand new behavior)
variable > fixed
ratio > interval
what is shaping?
when not currently displaying desired behavior, rewarding small steps that approximate the behavior until it is displayed
what is chaining?
using shaping to reinforce 2 responses, then a sequence of 3 and so on toward a complex sequence
what is the premack principle?
provide reward of engaging in a highly valued activity if person does a less valued activity first
what are prerequisite of effective operant conditioning?
trainee must be able to perceive stimulus/reward, reward must be rewarding and must be able to perceive relationship between behavior and reward
how did social cognitive theory start?
emerged out of operant conditioning
focuses on cognitive processes
emphasizes social component of learning
how does learning occur in SCT?
from interacting with and watching other people, as well as witnessing the resulting consequences
Emphasize observation and modeling
what are assumptions of SCT?
people can learn by observing others' behaviors and the consequences of those behaviors
learning can occur without an immediate change in behavior
there is triadic reciprocality
what is modeling?
the process of learning by observing what other people do and the resulting consequences
what can modeling do?
teach new behaviors, facilitate or inhibit previously learned behaviors, disinhibit previously forbidding behaviors, increase the frequency of similar behaviors
what is facilitation in modeling?
when someone is more likely to perform previously learned behaviors after observing a model be reinforced for that behavior
what is inhibition in modeling?
when someone is less likely to perform previously learned behaviors after observing a model be punished for that behavior
what is disinhibition in modeling?
when someone is more likely to perform previously forbidden behaviors after observing a model be either reinforced or not punished for that behavior
what makes a good model?
perceived similarity, competence, status
what are the necessary conditions for modeling?
attention, retention, ability to perform the behavior and opportunity to practice the behavior, motivation to demonstrate what they've learned and high self-efficacy for the behavior
what are the types of models?
live, symbolic and verbal instructions
what is cognitive modeling?
modeling that involves an explanation beyond just demonstration (includes verbalization of thoughts and reasons for each statement or action)
what is triadic reciprocality or reciprocal causation?
personal, behavior and environmental factors influence one another
what is important to note about theories?
it is just our best explanation so far and doesn't always explain everything.
who is responsible for individual constructivism?
who is responsible for social constructivism?
what is individual constructivism?
learning occurs by integrating new info or experiences we encounter with prior knowledge and understandings
what is social constructivism?
learning occurs through interactions with more knowledgeable others or how people work together to create knowledge
what are assumptions of cognitivist theories?
some learning processes are unique to humans, learning involves the formation of mental representations which may not be seen in behavior, people can be activity involved in their learning, knowledge is organized
we can make inferences about unobservable mental processes
what does constructivism emphasize?
contribution of learners to their own learning and the importance of social interaction in development of skills and knowledge
what are the key ideas of piaget's theory?
•Children are activeand motivatedlearners
•Childrenorganizewhat they learn from their experiences
•Learning and cognitive development depend on interactingwith the physical environment and other people
•Children learn and develop via equilibration
•Development as a form of adaptation to reality
•Development happens when reality is disturbed, creating a "problem" to be solved
•Cognitive development (learning) will only occur when cognitive conflict existsand children need to remedy that conflict
what is a schema?
how the things that children learn and do is organized
groups of similar actions or thoughts that are used repeatedly in response to the environment
what is equilibration?
integrating particular pieces of knowledge of the world into a unified whole
how does equilibration occur?
assimilation- transforming new info to fit existing way of thinking
accommodation- adapting our existing way of thinking to new info that doesn't fit our existing thinking
what is important about Piaget's stages?
they are universal, qualitiativly distinct stages
what are the stages of Piaget's theory?
Sensorimotor (0-2), Preoperational (2-6), Concrete Operational (6-Early adolescence), Formal Operational (Adolescence and beyond)
what is distinct about the sensorimotor stage?
•Spontaneous, unplanned exploration of their environment
•Reality is based on their physical interactions with the world
•schemas are perception- and behavior-based
•Rapid changes in understanding and knowledge
•Begin engaging in goal-directed behavior
•Developobject permanence and earlysymbolic thought
what is distinct about the preoperational stage?
•Defined by capacity for symbolic thought (i.e., representing objects and events mentally), especially development of language (which develops rapidly)
•Can imagine future and reflect on past (but still focused on present)
•One-dimensional thinking; focus on perceptually striking features of objects
•Demonstrate irreversibility: Once things are done, they cannot be changed or undone
•Struggle to distinguish fantasy from reality
what is distinct about the concrete operational stage?
•Can understand of conservation problems
•Thinking involves logical operations, enabling focus on multiple dimensions of concrete objects and events
•Can take other points of view and take others perspectives into account (i.e., lessegocentrism)
•Capable of reversibility in thinking, along with class inclusion and seriation (essential for math)
•Thinking no longer dominated by sensory information, but still struggle with abstract concepts and hypotheticals
what is distinct about the formal operations stage?
•Individuals can now reason in terms of theories, abstractions, and hypotheticals(e.g., older girl in previous video)
•Can engage in scientific and logical reasoning
-Understand proverbs and idioms
-Acquire proportional reasoning
-Understand need to control variables to draw conclusions about hypotheses
•Able to be metacognitive
•In Piaget's view, this is the top level of cognition
-But we continue to develop within this stage through adolescence and adulthood
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