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J1 semester only

Central Nervous System consists of the...

Brain and Spinal Cord

The Peripheral Nervous System consists of..

Efferent and Afferent nerves

Efferent nerves consists of ...

Autonomic and Somatic nervous system

Autonomic nervous system consists of...

Sympathetic(adrenergic) and Parasympathetic(cholinergic) Nervous System

Sympathetic Nervous System consists of ...

Alpha 1/2 receptors and Beta 1/2 receptors

Parasympathetic consists of ...

Nicotinic and Muscrinic receptors

What are some actions of the Sympathetic NS..

dialates pupils, inhibits flow of saliva, accelerates heart beat, dilates bronchi, inhibits peristalsis and secretion of stomach, conversion of glycogen to glucose, secretion of adrenaline and noreadrenaline, inhibits bladder contraction

What are some actions of the Parasympathetic NS..

constricts pupil; stimulates flow of saliva; vagus nerve:( slows heart beat, constricts bronchi, stimulates parastalsis and secretion, stimulates release of bile); contracts bladder

Sympathetic actions come from a...

chain of sympathetic ganglion

Parasympathetic actions come from...

the brain, of spinal column

Cholinergic means that it is associated with..


Preganglionic fibers of the Sympathetic NS is .... and the preganglionic fibers of the Parasympathetic are ...

short; long

Actions of the preganglionic fibers always release ....


Heart rate ... with parasympathetic and ... with sympathetic

decreases; increases

Innervations of autonomic regulation are .... with each other.

complimentary; i.e. in male reproduction, the erection of the penis is parasympathetic(calmness) and ejaculation is sympathetic(excite).

Parasympathetic dominates the activity of ...and sympathetic dominates the activity of ...

rest and digest;

Sympathetic nervous system functions are...

1. regulation of cardiovascular
2. regulation of body temp
3. fight or flight

Innervations and control of the autonomic regulation has three parts...

1. have opposite effect
2. both compliment each other
3. innervation by only one division

Autonomic feedback is ...

the process of self adjustment such as the baroreceptor reflex(receptors on large arteries [aorta/carotid sinus]that respond to increases or decreases in BP)

Sympathetic NS initiates responses at ... site. The main NT is ...

adrenergic receptor; Norepinephrine

Some other Adrenergic NT are..

acetylcholine(preganglion), Norepinephrine(post ganglion), epinephrine, dopamine

The precursors for Ach are...

choline and acetylchoenzyme A

Ach can be destroyed by...


Precursors for norepinephrine are....

phenylalanine, tyrosine, dopa and dopamine

Norepinephrine can be destroyed by...

monoamine oxidase

Epinephrine comes directly from..

adrenal gland

Epinephrine is destroyed by the ...


Dopamine is the same name for ...which is highly active in the CNS and renal ANS


Alpha1 receptors ..., while Beta1 increases ... .., and Beta2 does...., and Dopaminergic1 ....

constrict; heart rate; bronchial dilation, uterine relaxation, vasodilation, liver glycogenolysis; dilates renal vessels

Vagus nerve comes from the...


Parasympathetic system does the acronym sludge, which stands for..., and dumbels, which stands for...

salivation,lacrimation(secretion of tears),urinary incontinence,diarrhea,gastrointestinal cramps, emesis(vomiting); diarrhea,urination,miosis(constriction of eyes),bronchospasms,emesis,lacrimation,saliva

Most diseases are in the target organs of...


Drugs prevent the normal.... or .... of NT.

destruction; reuptake

Drugs cause NT to ... longer.


Drugs that bind to receptor sites on target tissues either... or ..

stimulate; inhibit

Drugs that are similar ...while drugs that block...


Smoking saturates ... receptors.

nicotinic (cholinergic)

Adrenergic agonists are either ... or ...

selective; nonselective

Non-selective adrenergic agonist NT are.., which are needed in ... duration, cannot be given..., and do not cross the ... .. ....

catecholamines(epinephrine); short; orally;does not cross the blood brain barrier; elevated BP, HR, resp, angina, hemorrhage, arrhythmias, temors;

Selective adrenergic agonist NT are..., which are needed in ... duration, and can be given .., and do cross the .. .. ..

non catecholamines(ephedrine); longer; orally; blood brain barrier

Other selective adrenergic agonists NT are...

psuedoephedrine(sudafed), phenylephrine(neo-synephrine), amphetamine(dexadrene)=ADHD

Alpha antagonists can be used therapeutically and cause...

hypertention, vasospasm, prostatic outflow

A Beta adrenergic antagonist drug is ..

propranol (inderal); for hypertension, angina(heart pain), irregular heart rhythms, migrains, glaucoma; give po

Beta1 blockers(cardiac) do what?

decrease HR and contraction, and decrease release of renin

Beta2 blockers cause..

bronchospasms and hypoglycemia

Nursing implications with Beta antagonists are...

moniter HR and BP. Must not stop suddenly, postural hypotension, depression, and insomnia

Parasympathetic agonist drugs are...

1.bethanachol (urecholine): increase bladder tone, urinary excretion and GI secretions, induce miosis; causes hypertention, bronchospasms
2.Nicotine (nicotrol): used for smoking cessation; causes respiratory paralysis, bronchospasms, muscle twitching; have atropine around

Indirect acting cholinergic agonists act on...

acetylcholinesterase; increases muscle strength

Therapeutic indirect-acting Cholinergic agonists drugs are...

Tensilon for Myasthenia gravis(droopy eye)
Mestinon, neostigmine(prostigmin), eserine for glaucoma, aricept for alzheimers and dementia

What do cholinergic antagonists do? Some examples of use are...

block acetycholine receptors(muscurinic and nicotinic); for pre-op decrease secretions prior to anesthesia, restore cardiac rate and blood pressure after vagal stimulation, relieve bradycardia, treat parkinsonism, relax biliary and urethre colic, relax bladder and tighten sphincter, relax uterine

Some examples of cholinergic antagonists drugs are..

belladonna alkaloids(dilate eye)-Atropine(give in small doses, causes slight bradycardia through vagal stimulation, causes drowsiness, blurred vision, dry mouth, urinary retention, can make you mean[psychotic effect], very red[peripheral dilatation], blindness[mydraisis]; be precautious with elderly, glaucoma, renal, prostate enlargement

Antidote for atropine is...

physostigmine salicylate(antilirium)

Alpha adrenergic Antagonists cause...Some therapuetic medications are...Some actions are...Some side effects are..Some nursing considerations are...

hypertention, vasospasms, protostatic outflow; Flomax(for prostatic hypertrophy), prazosin; decreases sympathetic tone, dilate arteries/veins, lowers BP; dizziness, headache, weakness; give before bedtime die to orthostatic hypotension, monitor vitals and edema

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