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Drugs Affecting Autonomic Nervous System and Homeostasis

J1 semester only
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Central Nervous System consists of the...
Brain and Spinal Cord
The Peripheral Nervous System consists of..
Efferent and Afferent nerves
Efferent nerves consists of ...
Autonomic and Somatic nervous system
Autonomic nervous system consists of...
Sympathetic(adrenergic) and Parasympathetic(cholinergic) Nervous System
Sympathetic Nervous System consists of ...
Alpha 1/2 receptors and Beta 1/2 receptors
Parasympathetic consists of ...
Nicotinic and Muscrinic receptors
What are some actions of the Sympathetic NS..
dialates pupils, inhibits flow of saliva, accelerates heart beat, dilates bronchi, inhibits peristalsis and secretion of stomach, conversion of glycogen to glucose, secretion of adrenaline and noreadrenaline, inhibits bladder contraction
What are some actions of the Parasympathetic NS..
constricts pupil; stimulates flow of saliva; vagus nerve:( slows heart beat, constricts bronchi, stimulates parastalsis and secretion, stimulates release of bile); contracts bladder
Sympathetic actions come from a...
chain of sympathetic ganglion
Parasympathetic actions come from...
the brain, of spinal column
Cholinergic means that it is associated with..
acetylcholine
Preganglionic fibers of the Sympathetic NS is .... and the preganglionic fibers of the Parasympathetic are ...
short; long
Actions of the preganglionic fibers always release ....
acetylcholine
Heart rate ... with parasympathetic and ... with sympathetic
decreases; increases
Innervations of autonomic regulation are .... with each other.
complimentary; i.e. in male reproduction, the erection of the penis is parasympathetic(calmness) and ejaculation is sympathetic(excite).
Parasympathetic dominates the activity of ...and sympathetic dominates the activity of ...
rest and digest;
Sympathetic nervous system functions are...
1. regulation of cardiovascular
2. regulation of body temp
3. fight or flight
Innervations and control of the autonomic regulation has three parts...
1. have opposite effect
2. both compliment each other
3. innervation by only one division
Autonomic feedback is ...
the process of self adjustment such as the baroreceptor reflex(receptors on large arteries [aorta/carotid sinus]that respond to increases or decreases in BP)
Sympathetic NS initiates responses at ... site. The main NT is ...
adrenergic receptor; Norepinephrine
Some other Adrenergic NT are..
acetylcholine(preganglion), Norepinephrine(post ganglion), epinephrine, dopamine
The precursors for Ach are...
choline and acetylchoenzyme A
Ach can be destroyed by...
acetylcholinesterase
Precursors for norepinephrine are....
phenylalanine, tyrosine, dopa and dopamine
Norepinephrine can be destroyed by...
monoamine oxidase
Epinephrine comes directly from..
adrenal gland
Epinephrine is destroyed by the ...
liver
Dopamine is the same name for ...which is highly active in the CNS and renal ANS
levadopa
Alpha1 receptors ..., while Beta1 increases ... .., and Beta2 does...., and Dopaminergic1 ....
constrict; heart rate; bronchial dilation, uterine relaxation, vasodilation, liver glycogenolysis; dilates renal vessels
Vagus nerve comes from the...
medulla
Parasympathetic system does the acronym sludge, which stands for..., and dumbels, which stands for...
salivation,lacrimation(secretion of tears),urinary incontinence,diarrhea,gastrointestinal cramps, emesis(vomiting); diarrhea,urination,miosis(constriction of eyes),bronchospasms,emesis,lacrimation,saliva
Most diseases are in the target organs of...
ANS
Drugs prevent the normal.... or .... of NT.
destruction; reuptake
Drugs cause NT to ... longer.
remain
Drugs that bind to receptor sites on target tissues either... or ..
stimulate; inhibit
Drugs that are similar ...while drugs that block...
promote(agonist/mimetic);
inhibit(antogonists/lytics/depressant/antispasmodics)
Smoking saturates ... receptors.
nicotinic (cholinergic)
Adrenergic agonists are either ... or ...
selective; nonselective
Non-selective adrenergic agonist NT are.., which are needed in ... duration, cannot be given..., and do not cross the ... .. ....
catecholamines(epinephrine); short; orally;does not cross the blood brain barrier; elevated BP, HR, resp, angina, hemorrhage, arrhythmias, temors;
Selective adrenergic agonist NT are..., which are needed in ... duration, and can be given .., and do cross the .. .. ..
non catecholamines(ephedrine); longer; orally; blood brain barrier
Other selective adrenergic agonists NT are...
psuedoephedrine(sudafed), phenylephrine(neo-synephrine), amphetamine(dexadrene)=ADHD
Alpha antagonists can be used therapeutically and cause...
hypertention, vasospasm, prostatic outflow
A Beta adrenergic antagonist drug is ..
propranol (inderal); for hypertension, angina(heart pain), irregular heart rhythms, migrains, glaucoma; give po
Beta1 blockers(cardiac) do what?
decrease HR and contraction, and decrease release of renin
Beta2 blockers cause..
bronchospasms and hypoglycemia
Nursing implications with Beta antagonists are...
moniter HR and BP. Must not stop suddenly, postural hypotension, depression, and insomnia
Parasympathetic agonist drugs are...
1.bethanachol (urecholine): increase bladder tone, urinary excretion and GI secretions, induce miosis; causes hypertention, bronchospasms
2.Nicotine (nicotrol): used for smoking cessation; causes respiratory paralysis, bronchospasms, muscle twitching; have atropine around
Indirect acting cholinergic agonists act on...
acetylcholinesterase; increases muscle strength
Therapeutic indirect-acting Cholinergic agonists drugs are...
Tensilon for Myasthenia gravis(droopy eye)
Mestinon, neostigmine(prostigmin), eserine for glaucoma, aricept for alzheimers and dementia
What do cholinergic antagonists do? Some examples of use are...
block acetycholine receptors(muscurinic and nicotinic); for pre-op decrease secretions prior to anesthesia, restore cardiac rate and blood pressure after vagal stimulation, relieve bradycardia, treat parkinsonism, relax biliary and urethre colic, relax bladder and tighten sphincter, relax uterine
Some examples of cholinergic antagonists drugs are..
belladonna alkaloids(dilate eye)-Atropine(give in small doses, causes slight bradycardia through vagal stimulation, causes drowsiness, blurred vision, dry mouth, urinary retention, can make you mean[psychotic effect], very red[peripheral dilatation], blindness[mydraisis]; be precautious with elderly, glaucoma, renal, prostate enlargement
Antidote for atropine is...
physostigmine salicylate(antilirium)
Alpha adrenergic Antagonists cause...Some therapuetic medications are...Some actions are...Some side effects are..Some nursing considerations are...
hypertention, vasospasms, protostatic outflow; Flomax(for prostatic hypertrophy), prazosin; decreases sympathetic tone, dilate arteries/veins, lowers BP; dizziness, headache, weakness; give before bedtime die to orthostatic hypotension, monitor vitals and edema