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which process is the functionof the smooth muscle layer of the digestive system?

mixing and propulsion

which process is the primary function of the mouth?


which process is the function of the villi of the small intestine?


which accessory organ produces fluid to soften food?

salivary glands

which accessory organ produces fluid that functions to emulsify dietary fats?


which accessory organ stores bile?


the capability of the GI tract to move material along its length is called_______


this layer of the GI tract is composed of areolar connective tissue containing blood and lymph vessels

lamina propria

this layer of the GI tract is composed of areola connective tissue that binds the mucosa to the muscularis


this layer functions by secreting a lubricating fluid


these are compsed of prominent lymphatic nodules that function in the immune response


this plexus is located btw the longitudinal and circular smooth muscle layers of the muscularis

myenteric plexus

why do emotion such as anger or fear slow digestion?

bc they stimulate the sympathetic nerves that supply the GI tract

this portion of the peritoneum drapes over the transverse colon and coils of the the small intestine

greater omentum

this portion of the peritoneum attaches the liver to the anterior abdominal wall and diapharm

falciform ligament

this portion of the peritoneum is largely responsible for carrying blood and lymph vessels to the intestines


describe the hard palate (3)

1. is the anterior portion of the roof of the mouth
2. is formed by the maxillae and palatine bones
3. is covered by a mucous membrane

in the mouth, this runs posteriorly to the sides of the pharynx

palatopharyngeal arch

in the mouth, the tooth sockets are lined with

peridontal ligament

deciduous molars are replaced by


which spinchter contains skeletal muscle? (LES/UES)


how many stages of deglutition are there?


this structure of the stomach allows greater distension for food storage


which cell secrete gastric acid?

parietal cells

this cell secretes the hormone that promotes production of gastric acid

G cells

how long can foodd stay in the fundus before being mixed with gastric juices?

1 hour

this major duct carries a fluid rich bicarbonate ions

pancreatic duct

this gastric enzyme digest protein


this is the heaviest gland of the body


this is found on the liver and is remnant of the umbilical cord in a fetus

round ligament

this is the principle bile pigment


name the functions of the liver

1. conversion of carbohydrates
2. protein metabolism
3. storage or bilirubin
4. storage of vitamins

which of the small intestine cells secretes lysozyme?

paneth cells

duodenal glands (brunners glands )secretes (2)

mucous and alkaline juice

which enzyme acts to produce monoglycerides as products?


which pancreatic enzyme acts to produce monosaccharides?


which pancreatic enzyme acts to produce smaller peptides from proteins?


this hormone functions to counteract the effect of gastric acid in the small intestine


this hormone is stimulated by high levels of dietary fat in the small intestine


this digestive aid, produced by the stomach, begins digestion by denaturing proteins

hydrochloric acid

this structure regulates the flow of material into the colon

ileocecal sphincter

what is the primary function of the large intestine?

feces formation

chemical reactions that break down complex organic molecules into simpler ones


chemical reaction that combine simpler molecules and monomers to form complex structures


when the terminal phosphate is cut off ATP what is formed?

adenosine diphosphate


removal of electrons


addition of electrons

this is a derivative of vitamin B


form of phosphorylation

1. substrate level phosphorylation
2. oxidative phosphorylation
3. photophosphorylation


1. performed by hepatocytes
2. performed by muscle fibers
3. one way to make glucose
4. only seen in the liver

this process is the synthesis of triglycerides


this reaction oxidizes acetyl co-A to produce carbon dioxide, ATP, NADH and FADH2

krebs cycle

glycolysis, formation of acetyl coA, krebs cycle and the ETC are all involved in

glucose catabolism

this is the key regulator of the rate of glycolysis


where cam pyruvate dehydrogenase be found?


the most abundant product of the reactions of the kreb cycle is...

reduced co enzymes

the net result of the complete oxidation of glucose include? (4)

1. water
2. CO2
3. ATP
4. waste heat

how many reactions take place during Krebs cycle?


when a large amount of H+ accumulates btw the inner and outer mitochondria membranes, this describes_____


how many ATPs can come from substrate level phosphorylation during glycolysis?


what hormone stimulates glycogenesis?


which hormone stimulates gluconeogenesis?


glycogenolysis is ________ and stimulated by ____________

catabolic, epinephrine

thyroid hormones

promotes glycolysis

these transport dietary lipids


most cholesterol medications are designed to

inhibit glucose absorption

where does glycolysis take place?


where does the krebs cycle take place?


lipogenesis occurs when

more calories are consumed than required fro ATP need

excess amino acids in the body are

converted into glucose

live cell convert

ammonia into urea

what can glucose-6-phosphate do? (4)

1. can be used to make ribose-5-phosphate
2. can be dephosphorylated to glucose
3. can be used to synthesized glycogen
4. can be converted to pyruvic acid

which is used in "metabolic crossroads"?

pyruvic acid

what is important in the absorptive state ?

storage of energy

most glucose that enters the liver is converted to


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