Fought under the organizational direction of Leon Trotsky (1879-1940). Eventually suppressed internal and foreign opposition to the new government.
Fought against the Red Army for several years, but they could no adequately organize themselves and their Allied help was insufficient in their attempt to defeat the Bolsheviks. Their military threat to the Bolsheviks allowed them to pursue authoritarian policies more rapidly than they might have ever been able to do.
He joined Lenin's movement in 1917, and soon became his right hand man. He was the "Father" of the Red Army. A brilliant organizer and theorist, Trotsky was also brusque, and some felt overbearing.Chariman of the Petrograd Soviet.
Headed the early Brest-Litovisk negotiating team
Served as Foreign Commissar. Became involved in the power struggle with 3 other men after Lenin's death in 1925. By 1927 Trotsky was removed from all of his offices, expelled from the party, and exiled to Siberia. In 1929, he was forced out of Russian, and eventually he moved to Mexico, where he was murdered in 1940 by one of Stalin's agents. Trotsky's death put Stalin in complete control of the Soviet Union.
The founder of the Soviet Union, suffered a serious stroke on May 26, 1922 and a second in December of that same year. Before he died he wrote the "testament" in which he said he feared that Stalin his successor would abuse his power. Lenin died before he ever got the chance to remove Stalin from his position. He died on January 21 1924. In March of 1921 he outline the New Economic Policy following the naval mutiny and in the face of continuing peasant resistance to the requisition of grain needed to feed the urban population. After Lenin had his stroke his firm hand disappeared. This caused a power vacuum that led to an intense struggle for the leadership of the party (Between Stalin and Trotsky)
1879-1953. He was general secretary of the party in 1922. Stalin's power base lay with the party membership and in the day-to-day management of the party after fairs. He was able to withstand the posthumous strictures of Lenin. He became involved in Lenin's Bolshevik movement in his 20s and became Lenin's expert on miniorities. Intimidated by the Party's intellectuals, he took over numerous and in some cases, seemingly unimportant Party organizations after the Revolution and transformed them into important bases of power, like the Politburo, Orgburo, Inspectorate, and the Secretariat. At the XV Party Congress, Stalin was now firmly in charge and instituted his plan for the collectivization of farms in the Soviet Union.
secret police, formed by Lenin. Created on Dec 20, 1917. It was the first of secret societies formed during the rule of the Soviet Union.
brought economic disaster and social upheaval throughout the century. In order to provide more food to Russia's cities, the Soviet government implemented a "War Communism" program that centered around forced grain seizures and class war between "Kulaks" (middle glass peasants) and the Bolsheviks. These policies triggered rebellions against the seizures that saw the amount of land under cultivation and the total grain produced drop between 1918-1921.
A strategic retreat made by Lenin in March 1921, following the naval mutiny and in the face of continuing peasant resistance of the requisition of grain needed to feed the urban population. A limited revival of capitalism, especially in light industry and agriculture, introduced by Lenin in 1921 to repair the damage inflicted on the Russian economy by the Civil War and war communism.
Bolshevik revolutionary and political and intellectual thinker for Stalin. Supported the NEP
Formed in 1919 better known as the Third International of the European socialist movement. Worked to make the Bolshevik model of socialism, as Lenin has developed it, the rule for all socialist parties outside the Soviet Union. In 1920, the Comintern imposed 21 conditions on any socialist party that wished to join it. The Comintern sought to destroy democratic socialism, which it accused of having betrayed the working class through reform policies and parliamentary accommodation.
The communist movement which retained power in current Russia from 1917-1991. Began with the Bolshevik revolution under the leadership of Lenin and Trotsky.
(1872-1952) The most famous utopian writer. In Communism and the Family (1918) and other works she envisioned a new kind of family that she thought would liberate both men and women. Her views included both the expansion of sexual freedom and the radical sharing of tasks about the home between wives and husbands. Few people in the Soviet Union agreed with her, but her views became well known and were often assumed to reflect those of a wide spectrum of the Soviet leadership and citizenry. Kollanti's radical social vision constituted the reality of the bold new life being forged in the Soviet Union.
Communism and the Family
Written by Alexandra Kollanti in 1918 in which she envisioned a new kind of family that she thought would liberate both men and women.
Mussolini was drafted into military service in 1915 and was badly wounded 2 years later. After recuperating, he went back to writing his newspaper, where he blended his ideas of socialism and nationalism.Following the war, he formed the Fascio di Combatrmento (Union of Combat) in Milan on March 23, 1919. Initially, Mussolini had few followers but as a few of socialism spread, he gained support. Italians started to believe that only Mussolini could bring stability and prosperity back to Italy. Italian fascist dictator (1883-1945)
An uber nationalist, totalitarian political ideology. A political movement that tends to be antidemocratic, anti-marxist, anti-parliamentary, and often anti-semitic. It is also used to describe a number of right-wing dictatorships that arose across Europe between the wars. A system of government characterized by strict social and economic control and a strong, centralized government usually headed by a dictator. First found in Italy by Mussolini. Fascist regimes sought to make the world safe for the middle class, small businesses, owners of moderate amounts of property, and small farmers. Rejected the political inheritance of the French Revolution and of nineteenth century liberalism.
Fasci di Combattimento
"Bands of Combat" was founded in 1919 in Milan. Its members came largely from Italian war veterans who felt the Paris conference had cheated Italy of the hard-won fruits of victory. They especially resented Italy's failure to gain Fiume on the NE coast of the Adriatic Sea. They also feared the spread of socialism and the effects of inflation within Italy itself.
Gabriele D' Annunzio
(1863-1938) Extreme nationalist writer. In 1919, he seized Fuime with a force of patriotic Italians. He was eventually driven out by the Italian army, but he had shown how a nongovernmental military force could be put to political use. The use of force against D'Annunzio made the Italian government appear less patriotic than the ultra-nationalists.
Black Shirt March
October 1922, the fascists dressed in their characteristic black shirts, began a rather haphazard march on Rome, which became known as the Black Shirt March. This ultimately led to the appointment of Mussolini as the new prime minister. Mussolini became the new prime minister because for whatever reason political or personal King Victor Emmanuel refused to sign a decree that would have authorized the army to stop the black shirt march. This decision so ensured fascists seizure of power.
(1860-1934) France's powerfully nationalistic prime minister, who decided to teach the Germans a lesson and force them to comply with their payment of reparations. To get Germany to comply he began occupying the Ruhr and taking their resources as a way to collect war reparations.
Cartel des Gauches
In 1924 Poincare's conservative ministry gave way to a coalition of leftist parties. Led by Edouard Herriot. The new cabinet recognized the Soviet Union and adopted a more conciliatory policy toward Germany.
David Llyod George
(1863-1945) Presided over the cabinet, he replaced Herbert Asquith as disagreements over war management developed. In 1918 against the wishes of both the Labour Party and the Asquith Liberals, Lloyd George decided to maintain the coalition through the tasks of the peace conference and the domestic reconstruction. Lloyd George could remain prime minister only as long as his dominant Conservative partners wished to keep him.
Labour Party (British)
Ramsay Macdonald (1866-1937) was asked to form the first Labour ministry in British history. The liberal party did not serve in the cabinet, but provided the necessary votes from both liberal and labour party members could provide an alternative majority. Labour had elected the second largest group of members of the commons. Socialistic in its platform, but democratic and distinctively nonrevolutionary. The party had expanded beyond its early trade-union base.
The General Strike of 1926
In 1926, after cuts in wages and a breakdown in negotiations, the coal miners went of strike. Soon thereafter in May 1926 workers in other industries engaged in a general strike lasting nine days. There was much tension but little violence. In the end the miners and other unions capitulated. After the strike the Baldwin government attempted to reconcile labor primarily through new housing and reforms in the poor laws.
"Ourselves Alone." Leadership of the nationalist cause shifted from the Irish Party in Parliament to this extremist movement. In 1918 they won all but 4 parliamentary seats outside Ulster. They refused to go to parliament in Westminster. INstead they then constituted themselves into a Dail Eireann, or Irish Parliament.
Eamon De Valera
(1882-1975) The first president of the Irish Republican Army. Born in the United States.
Insisted that churches tackle modern social issues, socialism the natural outcome of Christianity
Contending groups in Yugoslavia separated by differences in religion, educational background and location within the state.
This dictator was the leader of the Nazi Party. He believed that strong leadership was required to save Germanic society, which was at risk due to Jewish, socialist, democratic, and liberal forces.
Nazi militia created by Hitler in 1921 that helped him to power but was eclipsed by the SS after 1943
(1878-1929) Primarily responsible for reconstructing the republic and giving it a sense of self-confidence. Attempted to repair the damage from inflation. As chancellor from August to November 1923, Stresemann abandoned the policy of passive resistance in the Ruhr. The country simply could not afford it. With the help of banker Hjalmar Schacht he introduced a new German currency.
Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg
(1847-1934) military hero and a conservative monarchist, was elected as successor. He governed in strict accordance with the constitution, but his election suggested that German politics had become more conservative. It looked as if conservative Germans had become reconciled to the republic.