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49 terms

Unit 3 test- Richey

chapters 13, 14, 15
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Aristotle believed
everything is Perfect and unchanging
The 18th century french naturalist Lamarck argued for which of the following ideas
Life evolves, use/disuse, inheritance
Which one of the following people developed a theory of evolution identical to Darwin's
Wallace
Unifying theme of biology is
Evolution
Broccoli and cabbage both descended from the same wild mustard and can interbreed. This is an example of
Artificial Selection
Fossils form by which of the following processes
Organic material decays
Which one of the following represents two structures that are homologous
Vestigial organs- forearms, etc
A change in the relative frequencies of alleles in the gene pool is called
micro evolution
In the hardy-weinberg equation, homozygous dominant individuals in a population are represented by
p2
Genetic drift resulting from a disaster that drastically reduces population size is called
Bottleneck
The degree of adaptation that can occur in a population is limited by
Gene pool
Tay sachs is autosomal recessive- homozygs die, heterozygs are resistant to tuberculosis. This is called
heterozygous advantage
There is no fitness difference between individuals with dark and light hair. This describes
neutral variation
Average size of antler size remains the same over a long period of time. This describes
Stabilizing selection
The evolution of long-legged cheetahs is best explained by
natural selection
There are two types of rabbits- very dark and very light. No intermediate. This describes
disruptive selection
mate-attracting features result from
sexual dimorphism
Large antlers in males are an example of
intrasexual selection
Macro evolution can be defined as
big changes and broad patterns over long periods of time
A biological species is defined as
A group of populations whose members have the ability to interbreed and produce fertile offspring
Speciation can occur as a result of reproductive isolation- this occurs when individuals of organisms are
Prezygotic and postzygotic barriers
Example of temporal isolation
can interbreed, one at dusk one at dawn
example of habitat isolation
can interbreed, on different flowers
example of behavioral isolation
can interbreed, not attracted to each other
example of mechanical isolation
one is pollinated by bumblebees, other by honeybees
example of gametic isolation
sperm cannot enter egg
Example of reduced hybrid viability
produce zygots, embryo cannot develop
example of reproductive barrier
closely related species cannot mate
isolation of a species, with a reproductive barrier forming between it and the parent species is called
allopatric speciation
the likelihood of allopatric speciation increases when a popoulation is
small and isolated
speciation without geographic isolation is called
sympatric speciation
organisms with more than two complete sets of chromosomes are
polyploid
most polyploid species arise from
accidents during cell division
the emergence of numerous species from a common ancestor that finds itself ina new and diverse environment is called
adaptive radiation
situation in which a structure that evolved in one context is later adapted for another function is called
exaptions
evolution is a response to interactions between organisms and
environment
by studying fossils in strata from many locations, scientists can learn about
macro evolution
the earliest discovered fossils are ____ dating back to ____ years ago
stromatolites, 3.5 bya
The technique called radiometric dating is based on
measurement of radioactive isotopes
the continents and seafloors together form a thin outer layer of the Earth called the
crust
geologists call the forces within the Earth than cause movements of the crust
continental drift
the Galapagos islands formed by
volcanic eruption
how many periods of mass extinctions have occurred in the last 600 mil yrs?
5, 6 including the one we're in
which of the following is the process by which species not closely related may come to resemble one another if they live in a similar environment
convergent
structures that evolved from the same structure in an ancestor are
homology shared in ancestral characteristics
Similarities in a function of hummingbird wings and the wings of a butterfly reflect
derivative form characteristics
the scientific name of the human species is
homo sapiens
taxonomic categories in order fom most specific to most general
Species, Genus, Family, Order, Class, Phylum, Kingdom, Domain
Three domain system is
prokaryotes, eukaryotes, archaea