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69 terms

Cellular Adaptations, Cell Injury, and Cell Death

Terms and ides from Chapter 1 in Robbins Pathology.
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Hypoxia
What contributes to vacuolar degeneration of cells?
Anaerobic Glycolysis
How does a hypoxic cell derive its energy?
Decreased pump capacity
Why does edema occur in hypoxic cells?
Reversible
Is vacuolar degeneration reversible or irreversible cell damage?
True
Necrosis is always pathologic (True/false).
False
Apoptosis is always pathologic (True/false).
Ischemia
Decreased blood flow to a tissue
Hypoxia
Decreased oxygen to a tissue
hypoxic
Which tissues are damaged more rapidly, ischemic or hypoxic?
Swollen mitochondria; swollen ER; pyknosis
List the characteristics of a cell in a state of reversible injury.
Coagulative
The type of necrosis dominated by denaturation
Liquefactive
The type of necrosis characterized by dominant enzyme digestion.
Coagulative
Type of necrosis characterized by preserved cell outlines
Coagulative
Decreased cellular pH resulting in the denaturation of cellular enzymes occurs in this type of necrosis.
Liquefactive
Necrosis characterized by focal bacterial or fungal infections
Coagulative
Dry gangrene is an example of this type of necrosis
Wet Gangrene
A necrotic tissue (usually an extremity), originally ischemic, now infected with a bacteria
Caseous
Necrosis characterized by amorphous granular debris enclosed within a distinct inflammatory border
Liquefactive
Necrosis occurring during ischemia of CNS tissue
Fat Necrosis
Fat destruction most often from pancreatic lipases.
Fat Necrosis
Characterized by shadowy necrotic cell outlines with basophilic calcium deposits.
Dystrophic Calcification
When necrotic tissue (any necrotic tissue) attracts Ca and other minerals, becoming calcified.
Mercury
This element binds to the sulfhydryl groups of the cell membrane increasing membrane permeability and inhibiting ATPase-dependent transport
Cyanide
Compound that blocks oxidative phosphorylation by poisoning mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase
Carbon Tetrachloride
Compound metabolized by CYP450 into a reactive toxic radical species that attacks phospholipids, generating new radicals.
Fatty Liver
The dissociation of ribosomes from the rough ER leads to a decrease in apoprotein synthesis which is responsible for this morphologic change
Tylenol (acetominophen)
A drug that is detoxified first by Cytochrome P450 (via sulfation and glucuronidation) and then by GSH. Toxicity results in hepatocellular necrosis
Apoptosis
Type of cell death observed during embryogenesis.
Apoptosis
Type of cell death observed in the endometrial cell during the menstrual cycle.
Apoptosis
Cells with DNA damage are destroyed by this process.
Apoptosis
Cell death associated with DNA ladder in agarose gel electrophoresis
Necrosis
Cell death associated with neutrophils
Apoptosis
Cell death associated with macrophages
Caspases
Cysteine proteases that inactivate DNases and break up nuclear scaffold and cytoskeleton.
Phosphatidylserine
A normally intracellular phospholipid, flipped extracellularly in an apoptotic cell
Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)
Family of membrane bound receptors that function in the extrinsic apoptotic pathway.
Extrinsic
Death receptors are associated with this apoptotic pathway.
Bcl-2
Anti-apoptotic protein normally found in mitochondrial membranes and cytoplasm..
growth factors
Anti-apoptotic factors are sustained by this class of peptides
Intrinsic
Apoptotic pathway controlled by the ratio of pro-apoptotic to anti-apoptotic molecules
Intrinsic
Apoptotic pathway characterized by mitochondrial membrane permeability.
p53
Tumor suppressor protein that accumulates when DNA is damaged. It stalls the cell cycle in G1 and can lead to apoptosis if its levels remain high.
Heterophagy
Process of lysosomal digestion of material ingested from the extracellular environment.
Heterophagy
Ingestion of apoptotic bodies by macrophages is an example of this type of lysosomal catabolism
Autophagy
The lysosomal digestion of the cell's own components
Lipofuscin
Undigested material derived from lipid peroxidation
Chloroquine
Drug that inhibits lysosomal enzymes, reducing tissue damage in inflammatory reactions. Used to treat rheumatoid arthritis.
Smooth ER
Organelle that will undergo hypertrophy when exposed to toxic chemicals (ethanol, barbituates) over an extended period of time.
Smooth ER
Cellular site of cytochrome P450 detoxification.
Mallory Body
Eosinophilic inculsion in liver cells, termed "alcoholic hyaline."
keratin
Mallory bodies are composed mainly of this intermediate filament and are characteristic of alcoholic liver disease.
Steatosis (fatty change)
An abnormal accumulation of triglycerides within parenchymal cells
Alcohol abuse
The most common cause of significant fatty change in the liver in developed countries.
Fatty change
Decreased synthesis of apoproteins in the liver results in this type of change.
protein
Intracellular hyaline change is attributed to the accumulation of what type of macromolecule.
Extacellular
Hyalinization of the walls of renal arterioles are an example of (intracellular/extracellular) hyaline change
Intracellular
Russell bodies and Mallory bodies are examples of (intracellular/extracellular) hyaline change.
Anthracosis
Accumulation of exogenous carbon particles in the tracheobronchal lymph nodes resulting a blackening of the tissue.
Lipofuscin
Endogenous wear and tear pigment thought to be derived from lipid peroxidation.
Lipofuscin
Yellow-brown, finely granular intracytoplasmic pigment.
Melanin
Endogenous brown-black pigment from the oxidation of dihydroxyphenylalanine
Hemosiderin
Hemoglobin derived golden to yellow-brown pigment. Seen where there is a local excess of iron.
Metastatic calcification
Calcification always related to hypercalcemia secondary to disorder in calcium metabolism.
Dystrophic calcification
Local calcium deposition in dying tissues
Dystrophic
Atherosclerosis is an example of which type of calcification.
Metastatic
Type of calcification found most often in tissues that have an internal alkaline compartment (lungs, kidneys, arteries, pulmonary veins and gastric mucosa)
Telomere
With each replication this portion of the chromosome is thought to shorten eventually arresting the cell cycle.
Telomerase
The RNA-protein complex responsible for adding nucleotides onto the end of chromosomes using its own RNA template.
Telomerase
Active in cancers and germline cells, but inactive in normal somatic cells.