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BIO 1409 - Exam 1
Terms in this set (40)
List the 3 components of the circulatory system.
1. The Blood
2. The Heart
3. Blood Vessels
In addition to the earthworm, identify 2 groups of animals that have a closed circulatory system.
Fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.
Which set of chambers supplies blood to the pulmonary circuit?
The right side (right atrium and ventricles) which pumps deoxygenated blood to the pulmonary circuit.
Why is the left ventricle more muscular than the right ventricle?
The left ventricle also has a thicker muscular wall than the right ventricle due to the higher forces needed to pump blood through the systemic circuit (around the body) compared to the pulmonary circuit.
In a mammal, where does blood with a low oxygen concentration enter the heart?
The oxygen-poor blood enters the right atrium (RA), or the right upper chamber of the heart.
The bicuspid valve prevents the blood from flowing back into what structure?
prevents blood from flowing from the left ventricle to right atrium.
What valve is located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery (give all names)?
the tricuspid valve, located between the right atrium and the right ventricle; the pulmonary (pulmonic) valve, between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.
Rheumatic fever is a bacterial disease that can result in degeneration of heart valves. What would that disease cause?
Strep throat, scarlet fever, heart disease.
When your blood pressure is measured from an artery in your arm, you are measuring blood pressure produced by what structure of the heart?
A sphygmomanometer has three parts: a cuff that can be inflated with air, a pressure meter (manometer) for measuring air pressure in the cuff, and a stethoscope for listening to the sound the blood makes as it flows through the brachial artery (the major artery found in your upper arm). To measure blood pressure, the cuff is placed around the bare and stretched out upper arm, and inflated until no blood can flow through the brachial artery. Then the air is slowly let out of the cuff.
As soon as the air pressure in the cuff falls below the systolic blood pressure in the brachial artery, blood will start to flow through the arm once again. This creates a pounding sound when the arteries close again and the walls of the vessels hit each other after a heart beat. The sound can be heard by placing the stethoscope close to the elbow. Right when you start to hear this pounding for the first time you can read your systolic blood pressure off the pressure meter.
How long does the average adult red blood cell live?
Which blood constituent makes up more of the volume of blood?
Approximately 99% of blood cells are involved in what function?
transport oxygen and nutrients around the body? (unsure)
Identify the corpuscles in which hemoglobin is found.
red blood cell
What are the functions of leukocytes?
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders
What primarily drives the return of blood to the heart in the systemic venous circulation?
The return of blood to the heart is assisted by the action of the skeletal- muscle pump. As muscles move, they squeeze the veins running through them. Veins contain a series of one-way valves, and they are squeezed, blood is pushed through the valves, which then close to prevent backflow.
Identify the correct sequence of blood vessels from the heart through the body and back to the heart.
1. Inferior/Super Vena Cava.
2. Right Atrium
3. Tricuspid Valve
4. Right Ventricle
5. Pulmonary semilunar valve
6. Pulmonary arteries
8. Pulmonary veins (right and left)
9. Left atrium
10. Bicuspid valve
11. Left ventricle
12. Aortic semilunar valve
17. Inferior Vena Cana (repeat)
Identify the smallest type of blood vessel.
Which type of blood vessel is directly involved in the exchange of materials between blood and tissues?
What is the role of valves in the veins?
They keep blood from flowing backward when the veins are squeezed by skeletal muscles.
What would you call the material left after removing erythrocytes, leucocytes, and thrombocytes from whole body?
Identify the nutrients that provide energy for animals.
carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, proteins, minerals, vitamins.
What is the diverse group of molecules that generally contain long chains of carbon atoms and are insoluble in water called?
What category of compound is the most concentrated energy source?
If you eat 20 grams of potato chips in which 10 grams are potato (carbohydrate) and the other 10 grams are fat, you will get how many calories from carbohydrate and how many calories from lipid?
40 calories carbohydrate, 90 calories from lipid
List the components of "fiber" in the diet.
cellulose, noncellulosic polysaccharides such as hemicelluloses and pectic substances, and a non-carbohydrate component, lignin. They are mostly indigestible, cellulose
After getting up late and leaving without any breakfast, you recognize that you are late to class and begin sprinting to reach the lecture hall two blocks away. What carbohydrate would most likely to be the energy source for your activity and don't say glucose?
Which category of organic compound is used the least by humans as an energy source?
What is the material called that contains undigested plant fiber and dead microorganisms that is eliminated from the body and it the word does not begin with s or c?
The taking in of substances into the body through the mouth by swallowing or absorbing
What part of the digestive tract has the lowest pH?
What types of digestion take place in the mouth?
mechanical and chemical
What structures in the human body produce amylase?
pancreas and salivary gland
Where does most chemical digestion occur in the human body?
How do bile salts aid in the digestion of fat?
The liver produces bile which emulsifies fats i.e. breaks them down into small droplets for a larger surface area. This will increase the rate at which the fat is digested by lipase. Bile also neutralizes the acid produced by the stomach to provide ideal alkaline conditions for enzymes in the small intestine.
What vitamin do bacteria in the large intestine produce?
If you chew on a piece of bread long enough (6 to 10 chews), what would happen to the taste of the bread?
it will taste sweeter
For enzymes to work, what is the difference between the stomach and small intestine?
The stomach is a muscular sac with an inner layer that produces enzymes, which digest proteins. ... The small intestine is a long muscular tube that further digests food via enzymes secreted from the walls and glands.
Identify the enzyme necessary to catalyze the breakdown of maltose?Sucrose? Lactose?
Maltase, Sucrase, Lactase
Identify the enzyme that would be affected by the consumption of antacids following a meal.
What dietary change needs to be made following surgery to remove a gallbladder?
control eating lipids because bile cannot break it down and then it can't be emulsified.
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