AP Psych Modules 1,2,3
Terms in this set (63)
How did psychology develop from its prescientific roots in early understandings of mind and body to the beginnings of modern science?
Psychology traces its roots back through recorded history to India, China, the Middle East, and Europe. Buddha and Confucius focused on the power and origin of ideas. The ancient Hebrews, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle pondered whether mind and body are connected or distinct, and whether human ideas are innate or result from experience.
Descartes and Locke ---> Locke described the mind as a "blank state" on which experience writes.
The ideas of Bacon and Locke contributed to the development of modern empiricism
The ancient Hebrews, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle pondered ...
whether mind and body are connected or distinct, and whether human ideas are innate or result from experience.
The ideas of Bacon and Locke contributed to the development of...
What are some important milestones in psychology's early development?
Wilhelm Wundt established the first psychological laboratory in 1879 in Germany.
Two early schools of psychology were structuralism and functionalism.
Structuralism, promoted by Wundt and Titchener, used self-reflection to learn about the mind's structure. Functionalism, promoted by James, explored how behavior and thinking function.
Who promoted structuralism?
Wundt and Titchener
Who promoted Functionalism?
How did psychology continue to develop from the 1920s through today?
Early researchers defined psychology as "a science of mental life"
In the 1920s, under the influence of John B Watson and the behaviorists, the field's focus changed to the "scientific study of observable behavior"
In the 1960s, the humanistic psychologists and the cognitive psychologists revived interest in the study of mental processes
Psychology is now defined as the science of behavior and mental processes.
Early researchers defined psychology as
"a science of mental life"
In the 1920s, under the influence of John B Watson and the behaviorists, the field's focus changed to the
"scientific study of observable behavior"
By seeking to measure "atoms of the mind" who established the first psychology laboratory?
Which philosopher proposed the nerve pathways allowed for reflexes?
Who coined the term "tabula rasa" (blank state) to help explain the impact experience has on shaping an individual?
Psychology is now defined as
the science of behavior and mental processes.
Which of the following best describes research typical of Wilhelm Wundt's first psychology laboratory?
measuring the reaction time between hearing a sound pressing a button
With which of the following statements would John B. Watson most likely agree?
Psychology should focus on observable behavior
the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation
early school of thought promoted by Wundt and Titchener; used introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind
looking inward -- training people to report elements of their experiences
-immediate feelings, sensations, images
Why didn't introspection work?
it required smart verbal people
it proved somewhat unreliable, results varying from person to person and experience and experience
-we often don't know why we feel what we do
SO structuralism died down
early school of thought promoted by James and influenced by Darwin; explored how mental and behavioral processes function -- how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish
the study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method
the view that psychologists 1. should be an objective science that 2. studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with 1. but not with 2.
Behaviorism supported this idea that
you can observe and record people's behavior as they respond to different situations but you cannot observe a sensation, feeling, thought
emphasized the ways our unconscious thought processes and emotional responses to childhood experiences affect our behavior
a historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people
Humanist psychologists focus on the ways that
current environmental influences can nurture or limit our growth potential/importance of having our needs for love and acceptance satisfied
rebellion of second group of psychologists during the 1960s is known as the
the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)
science of behavior and mental processes
anything an organism does
internal, subjective, experiences we infer from behavior
The APA has formed
Psychology's specialties include:
the basic research subfields, the applied research subfields, and the helping professions
work settings for psychologists include
a wide range of government agencies, industrial and business settings, clinics and counseling centers, health care institutions, schools, universities, and research organizations
Which of the following psychologists most strongly emphasize that human behavior is powerfully influenced by the interaction between people and their physical social, political, and economic environments
which of the following psychologists would be most likely to investigate biological, psychological, cognitive, and social changes over time
a psychologist investigates the methods teachers use to enhance student learning. with which of the following subfields is the psychologist most likely aligned?
a psychologist works with children whose parents are divorcing. she helps them develop skills they need to cope with the situation. of the following, what kind of psychologist is most likely helping these children
dwayne is interested in helping people make good decisions regarding their physical well-being. dwayne should consider a career as a
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
the study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning
the study of an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
industrial-organizational (i/o) psychology
the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces
human factors psychology
an i/o psychology subfield that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use
a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living and in achieving greater WELL-BEING
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy
Martin Seligman and others have called for
more research on human strengths and human flourishing
the scientific study of how human functioning, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive
a branch of psychology that studies how people interact with social environments and how social institutions affect individuals and groups
perspective that addresses how the encoding, storing, and retrieval of information might alter our thoughts?
who would most likely study the interaction of people, machines, and physical environments?
human factors psychologist
psychiatrists differ from psychologists in that they
are medical doctors licensed to prescribe medication
a humanistic psychologist working with some poets might ask which of the following questions
how can we get them to reach their highest potential?
betsy works in a human resources department. she plans training sessions, recruits people to work for the company, and implements techniques to boost morale around the office. beth is most likely a(n)
levels of analysis
the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon
an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis
the scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits
a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders
longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors.