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98 terms

Chapter 10 - Cardiovascular, Immune, & Lymphatic Systems & Blood

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heart
muscular cone-shaped organ the size of a fist, located behind the sternum (breast bone) and between the lungs. The pumping action of this organ circulates blood throughout the body.
atria
The upper chambers of the heart that receive blood returning from the body through the veins.
ventricle
The lower chambers of the heart that pump blood through the arteries from the heart back to the body tissues.
tricuspid valve
located between the right atrium and right ventricle
mitral valve
located between the left atrium and left ventricle
semilunar valves
pulmonary and aortic valves located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery between the left ventricle and aorta
pericardium
two-layer sac consisting of an external fibrous and internal serous layer. The serous layer secretes a fluid that facilitates movement of the heart. This layer also covers the heart and is called the epicardium.
epicardium
covers the heart
myocardium
middle, thick, muscular layer
endocardium
inner lining of the heart
blood vessels
tubelike structures that carry blood throughout the body
arteries
blood vessels that carry blood AWAY from the heart; oxygen and nutrients from the heart to the body cells
arterioles
smallest arteries
aorta
largest artery in the body, originating at the left ventricle and descending through the thorax and abdomen
veins
blood vessels that carry blood BACK TO THE HEART; waste products
venules
smallest veins
venae cavae
largest veins in the body
capillaries
microscopic blood vessels that connect arterioles with venules. Materials are passed between the blood and tissue through capillary walls.
blood
composed of plasma and formed elements such as erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes
plasma
clear, straw-colored, liquid portion of blood in which cells are suspended. Plasma is ~90% water and comprises 55% of the total blood volume
erythrocytes
red blood cells that carry oxygen; developed in the bone marrow
leukocytes
white blood cells tat combat infection and response to inflammation; there are five types
platelets (thrombocytes)
one of the formed elements in the blood that is responsible for aiding in the clotting process
serum
clear, watery fluid portion of the blood that remains after a clot has formed
lymph
transparent, colorless, tissue fluid that, on entering the lymphatic system, is called lymph; contains lymphocyte and monocytes and flows in one-way direction to the heart.
lymphatic vesses
transport lymph from body tissues to the chest where it enters the cardiac system
lymph nodes
small, spherical bodies composed of lymphoid tissue; filter lymph to keep substances such as bacteria and other foreign agents from entering the blood
spleen
located in the left-side of the abdominal cavity between the stomach and diaphragm; the largest lymphatic organ in the body; stores blood and destroys worn out RBCs
thymus gland
important role in the development of the body's immune system (infancy to puberty)
angi/o
vessel (usually refers to blood vessel)
aort/o
aorta
arteri/o
artery
atri/o
atrium
cardi/o
heart
lymphaden/o
lymph node
lymph/o
lymph, lymph tissue
myel/o
bone marrow
phleb/o, ven/o
vein
plasm/o
plasma
splen/o
spleen
thym/o
thymus gland
valv/o, valvul/o
valve
ventricul/o
ventricle
ather/o
yellow, fatty plague
ech/o
sound
electr/o
electricity, electrical activity
isch/o
deficiency, blockage
therm/o
heat
thromb/o
clot
brady-
slow
-ac
pertaining to
-apheresis
removal
-graph
instrument used to record; record
-odynia
pain
-penia
abnormal reduction in number
-poiesis
formation
-sclerosis
hardening
angioma
tumor composed of blood vessels
angiostenosis
narrowing of blood vessel
aortic stenosis
narrowing pertaining to aorta
arteriosclerosis
hardening of arteries
atherosclersosis
hardening of fatty plague
bradycardia
condition of slow heart (< 60 beats/minute)
cardiodynia
pain in the heart
cardiomegaly
enlargement of the heart
cardiomyopathy
disease of the heart muscle
cardiovalvultisis
inflammation of the valves of the heart
endocarditis
inflammation of the inner lining of the heart
ischemia
deficiency of blood flow
myocarditis
inflammation of the muscle of the heart
pericarditis
inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart
phlebitis
inflammation of a vein
polyarteritis
inflammation of many (sites in the) arteries
tachycardia
abnormal state of rapid heart (> 100 beats/minute)
thrombophlebitis
inflammation of a vein associated with a clot
hematoma
tumor of blood
multiple myeloma
tumors of bone marrow
pancytopenia
abnormal reduction of all blood cells
thrombosis
abnormal condition of a blood clot
thrombus
blood blot attached to the interior wall of an artery or a vein
lymphadenitis
inflammation of the lymph nodes
lymphadenopathy
disease of the lymph nodes
lymphoma
tumor of lymphatic tissue
splenomegaly
enlargement of the spleen
thymoma
tumor of the thymus gland
acute coronary syndrome (ACS)
sudden symptoms of insufficient blood supply to the heart indicating unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction
aneurysm
ballooning of a weakened portion of an arterial wall
angina pectoris
chest pain, which may radiate to the left arm and jaw, that occurs when there is an insufficient supply of blood to the heart muscle
arrythmia
any disturbance or abnormality in the heart's normal rhythmic pattern
atrial fibrillation (AFib)
a cardiac arrhythmia characterized by chaotic, rapid electrical impulses in the atria.
cardiac arrest
sudden cessation of cardiac output and effective circulation which requires CPR
cardiac tamponade
acute compression of the heart caused by fluid accumulation in the pericardial cavity
coarctation of the aorta
congential cardiac condition characterized by a narrowing of the aorta
congenital heart disease
heart abnormality present at birth
congestive heart failure (CHF)
inability of the heart to pump enough blood through the body to supply the tissues and organs with nutrients and oxygen
coronary artery disease (CAD)
a condition that reduces the flow of blood through the coronary arteries to the myocardium, denying the myocardial tissue of sufficient oxygen and nutrients to function fully; caused by artherosclerosis
coronary occlusion
obstruction of an artery of the heart, usually from arthersclerosis.
deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
condition of thrombus in a deep vein of the body.